Insects dominate on land.
Biggest group in the ocean are the crustaceans
Gills and an open circulation system, head with two antennae
Living in the Ocean
Challenges for living in the ocean:
Needs physical support
Can come from environmental medium, e.g. air or water
Much more support in marine environments
How does this translate into size of o
Mammals have hair, provide milk for young, and inner ear bones.
Other characteristics: breathe air/lungs, live young, parental care, warm-
constant body temperature.
Pinnipeds: seals, sea lions,
Earth: 4.5 billion years old
Universe: 13.8 billion years old Big Bang
No one knows what caused the BB
After the BB the universal temperature started to cool off, around the time that the
Fishes refers to all the different fish, whereas fish refers to either a single fish or a
Surfing, recreational boat traffic
Swimming with animals: dolphins, turtles, etc.
Cruises (some are ecotourism, most are not)
Seems good, but has detrimental effects.
Why? Big money. Increasi
On quiz from previous day:
Biological species concept-
can reproduce together AND offspring must be viable.
Reproductive isolation is not necessarily tied to the biological species concept.
Half essay question, half quizzes.
E.g. what drives the ocean currents?
Should only take 30 min.
There will be a quiz on the papers
Energy goes up the food chain, and these le
Wind and Waves
Current is mainly wind driven
Coriolis effect: The surface of the earth rotates, and things in a straight line end up
Appears curved only due to the frame of reference
At the equator,
they dont move at all, therefore live on the bottom (benthic) epifaunal
Food, but are generally toxic
Water enters through pores, called porocytes
Fewer hurricanes over all, but more extreme ones and more extreme in intensity
Thought to be an adaptation against water loss on land
Oviparous: lay eggs
Environmental sex det
Salt marshes form at the mouths of rivers
The material that is deposited is a fine silt
The only way for accretion to happen is through the plants there
Spartina grasses dominate NA
Seaweeds are multicellular algae
Green seaweeds are closely related to plants
Generally grow on rocky bottoms
Structure: Holdfast (like roots), stipe (like stem), pneumatocyst (floating ga