Lecture #6: Implementing screening: Cervical cancer (sen, spec, PPV)
Cervical cancer natural history
o Primary prevention: vaccination
o Secondary prevention: pap smear, pre-cancer treatment
o Tertiary prevention: detection/treatment of cancer =
Lecture 11: Analytical Epi: Cohort Studies & Trials
Analytical epi seeks to understand the effect of various exposures, characteristics, or
interventions on health status.
Proceeds in two steps:
In a study population, is there a
Lecture 10: Outbreak Investigation
1. Develop Case Definition
Case definition = working description used to define who is and who is not a case.
Includes clinical / laboratory criteria and restrictions by time, place, and person.
Multiple levels of cer
Lecture 12: Environmental Epidemiology
Environmental health: the field of science that studies how the environment influences human
health and disease
Can be defined as the world that surrounds people wherever they go, whatever they
Lecture 13: Case-Control and Cross-Sectional Studies
Basic Design of a Case-Control Study
Start by identifying people with the disease (cases) and those without (controls).
Then work backwards to determine past exposure.
If exposure is associated with
Lecture #17: Target-Driven and Evidence-Based Program Design
o Any health-related program should be evidence-based (or at least logical, if
evidence is absent).
o Activities should be targeted to achieving defined outcomes and sufficie
Lecture 14: Causal Inference
Making Causal Inferences
Chance, confounding, and bias all go to whether an observed association is valid.
But we dont ultimately care about associations. We want to know if exposures cause
Two key steps in evaluati
Lecture 9: Epi Basis of ID Control Measures
Epidemic Control Measures
You cant always prevent an epidemic.
You cant always stop an epidemic.
But you can often slow an epidemic and spread it out.
Ex. Closing School
Limits the amount of people sick at
Lecture 8: Infectious Disease Epidemiology
Endemic and Epidemic Disease
Endemic customary presence of disease in a population.
Usually stable public response
Anticipate always present
Ex. Common cold, sometimes HIV
Epidemic occurrence of disease in exc
Lecture 2: Descriptive Epi: Measures of morbidity
o Goals of descriptive epi
Understand the burden of disease in a population.
Understand the distribution of the causes of good/ill health.
Generate hypothesis for further study.
Lecture 1: Intro to Epi
Definition of epidemiology: Epidemiology is the study of the distribution and
determinants of health-related states or events in specified populations and the
application of this study to the control of health populations.
Lecture #3: Descriptive Epi: Measures of mortality and natural history
Measures of mortality
o Counts: the number of deaths in a defined population.
o Mortality rate: the number of deaths in a population / number of people in the
population per time peri
Lecture #4: Descriptive epi of HIV/AIDS in DC
Incident AIDS by race and sex
o 2 distinct epidemics:
Whites -> gay male communities
Black/Hispanics -> more factors that cause
o Size of the epidemic
Increasingly a disease of poverty (poor, black males)
Lecture #7: Public health surveillance
o Definition: the ongoing and systematic collection, analysis, and interpretation of
health data essential to the planning, implementation, and evaluation of public
health practice closely integrated wi
Lecture #18: Program Evaluation
Process Evaluation: Monitoring Program Implementation
Planning/Evaluation Logic Model
Focus on Outcome Evaluation how you measure the effectiveness of a program.
Comparison of Evaluation and Epi Research
o When you are me