The Nervous System
Question: Identify those characteristics that are "mind." Are mind functions an emergent property of the cellular
and molecular processes of the brain?
Sensing environment, acting in response to stimuli, perception of pain and pleasure,
Two chemical classes of transmitters: Neurons often contain and release one from each class.
Small molecules: all neurons have one of these
Amino acids glutamate, aspartate, glycine
Derivatives of amino
Exchanging Gases Across the Alveolar Surface (O 2 in, CO2 out)
Relies on concentration gradient
O2: high [ ] in air, low [ ] in blood
CO2: high [ ] in blood, low [ ] in air
Large surface area
Walls are 1 cell thick
Follow the trail of information:
Sensory input (experience, learning), coordinated and repeated
stable change such that subsequent experience elicits new response = memory.
Basically what is happening here?
Information is passed through a system over and
The Circulatory System
Structures: Heart, blood vessels, lymphatic system, spleen
o Movement of nutrients, waste, signals
o Long-distance delivery v. localized exchange
o Separating oxygenated and deoxygenated blood
The Endocrine System
Structure: The endocrine system is a dispersed and disparate group of organs.
o Cell-cell signaling is key.
o Critical role in homeostatic regulation (negative feedback) of other physiological
Types of S
The Respiratory System:
o Large: Lungs and Diaphragm
o Small: Membranes and Hemoglobin
o Large: Ventilation
o Small: Gas (O2, CO2) Exchange
Lungs and Ventilation
P1V1 = P2V2 V2>V1; P2<P1
The key is the chan
Biology Final Exam Review
Anatomy and Physiology: Introduction
Anatomy = structure. Physiology = function.
Challenges and Solutions
Two Big A&P Principles
The Importance of Homeostasis
Adaptation v. Acclimation
The Digestive System
Nutrient digestion and absorption
Building blocks and essential factors
Categories of nutrient acquisition (troph =
Extreme Life Physiology
1. Adaptations to High Altitudes
Three Separate instances of adaptation to high altitude:
Tibet (strong adaptation)
o SNPs in two hypoxia-induced transcription factors
o Increased respiration (greater lung capacity, incr
Cell Wall Synthesis in C. glabrata
o Eukaryotic microorganisms
o Other important features
Generally unicellular but some can form filaments
Have a cell wall for protec
Karyotypes and Chromosome
Understand the Causes and consequences of chromosome
o Change in total chromosome number
o Deletion or duplication
Changes in Chromosome number:
DNA Replication during S phase.
The single line of a chromosome drawing is actually 2 strands of DNA.
Copying things from an analog format: you lose information over time.
Digital format: binary code, high fide
An alteration in DNA sequence
Any bp change in any part of the DNA
Functions of DNA
Store, replicate, transmit, decode information
DNA can make mistakes
Chromosomes and Mitosis
Eukaryotic transmission of genetic material.
Genetic material from one generation of cells to the next involves mitosis and
Meiosis: leads to the production of gametes
2n to n (reduc
Know the process behind Mendels Breakthrough
Understand prior conceptions
Understand Mendels advance
Know the textbook facts of Mendelian Genetics
Know your way a
Understand Mendels laws
Use Mendels laws to interpret a pedigree
Understand the connection between Mendels results and the chromosome theory of
Know your way
What if Alleles arent additive?
We say that this is dominance, but we dont name it as we must quantify it.
How do we isolate this gene in order to quantify the dominance?
Concept : add
Quantitative Genetics I
limited inheritance occurs in cases where the expression of a specific phenotype
is different between sexes
Sex Chromosome Linkage: unique inheritance patterns due to presence of only one
Multiple Gene Effects Part 2
The same genotype does not always produce the same phenotype
Sometimes a genotype is not expressed at all; even though the genotype is
present, the phenotype doesnt appear
Multiple Gene Effects
Intermediate inheritance in which one allele for a specific trait is not completely
dominant over the other allele blended phenotype
Red x White = Pink
Dominant allele producing red color
Cellular Respiration and Fermentation
In cells, the endergonic reactions required for life occur in conjunction with an
exergonic reaction involving ATP.
ATP it has a great deal of potential energy.
Caused by the
DNA and the Gene: Synthesis and Repair
Genes are made out of DNA
When DNA is being copied, each strand of the double helix serves as the template
for the synthesis of a complementary strand.
If the template strand
Control of Gene Expression in Bacteria
In bacteria, gene expression can be controlled at three levels: transcription,
translation, or post-
translation (protein activation)
The flow of information from DNA to RNA to activat