1. Fishing, mining, forestry, and agriculture are examples of which of the following economic activities?
2. What system does your textbook highlight to explain why the dry city of Phoenix, Arizona, is connected to th
3. What term is used to describe the repeated fragmentation
and reorganization of ethnic groups into separate states in a
-The intellectual and practical activity
encompassing the systematic study of the
1. According to your text, which of Europe's world cities is one of the most important centers of finance
and business today?
2. Which of the following traditions was NOT a major foundation of contemporary European culture?
25 meters wide and converts wave energy to electricity by some secret process
a. Might you be interested in investing in the development of this project?
b. How high would waves need to be to generate this amount of power?
Electricity generation is a function of their capacity factor which is defined by
the demand. The plants
are operated in accordance with the rest of the renewable energy mix in order
to minimize the gap
between the load and the renewable electricity suppl
in all capacity classes from several kW to several 100 MW. The can provide
peak, intermediate and
Coal Steam Plants
Only a few countries in MENA use coal fired steam cycles. Coal must be
range from some 10 to several 100 M
sophisticated system of control is therefore required to ensure electric
closely matches the demand. If supply and demand are not in balance,
and transmission equipment can shut down which, in the worst cases, can lead
tubes are underway in the DISS and INDITEP projects sponsored by the European
the aim to reduce costs and to enhance efficiency by 15-20% (Table 2-2). Direct
generation has recently been demonstrated by CIEMAT and DLR on the
ships shaft horsepower of 50,000 hp (37,280 kW). Discuss.
Calculate the increase in potential energy when the ship is raised by 1 meter
formula E=mgh, where E is energy expressed in Joules (J), m is mass (kg),
is the gravitatio
mean system efficiency to the layout efficiency (q-factor). The q-factor is today
typically 0.67 and
expected to become 0.85 in the year 2050. This results in the performance
functions shown for
different annual irradiances in Figure 2-5.
Figure 2-5: Capa
used to store the energy before using it to boil water to drive turbines. These
allow power to be generated when the sun is not shining.
COST OF ELECTRICAL ENERGY:
Electric power transmission or "high voltage electric transmission" is the bulk
Parabolic troughs, linear Fresnel systems and power towers can be coupled to
steam cycles of 5 to 200
MW of electric capacity, with thermal cycle efficiencies of 30 40 %. DishStirling engines are used
for decentralised generation in the 10 kW range. The v
The technical performance of large wind power parks is modelled by the
functions shown in Figure 24 that define their overall annual full load hours and their annual electricity
yield. Even under
optimum conditions with an average wind speed of 10 m/s, a
Each of these technologies can be operated with fossil fuel as well as solar
energy. This hybrid
operation has the potential to increase the value of CSP technology by
increasing its power availability
and decreasing its cost by making more effective use
as countermeasure to desertification and loss of arable land. This requires more
investigation on the
possibilities and restrictions of such systems (Annex 10).
Example of solar dish collector/focus
MHD or MagnetoHydroDynamics is a little known
overview and comparison of all technologies is given in Error! Reference source
not found. and in
the literature /BMU 2004-2/, /ECOSTAR 2004/, /NREL 2003/.
2.1 Concentrating Solar Thermal Power Technologies
Concentrating solar thermal power technologies (
by the cooling process /TAB 2003/. From that, the extracTable 2-geothermal
electricity per year Egeo
can be calculated as a function of the power cycle efficiency, the recovery factor
and the total time of
extraction. The recovery factor takes into accoun
about 20 kW/m (http:/www.wavegen.co.uk/what_we_offer_limpet_islay.htm)
a. How many household could one LIMPET OWC support assuming that an
household requires an average of 1 kW power? Assume a capacity factor of
b. How many LIMPET units would
full load hours per year. Capacity factors are defined by the individual regional
power demand and
water resources. The Nile river is the most plentiful hydropower resource of the
there are some indications that the hydropower potentials
Electricity can be used directly in conventional mechanical compression chillers
conditioning, cooling and refrigeration. Co-generated heat can be applied to
absorption chillers. Vapour absorption chillers use input steam with a
agricultural or other purposes.
A review of presently existing or developed CSP projects is given in Annex 9.
Table 2-2: Selected CSP Technology Overview *
Technology Experience Next Step Current
the Solar Components
PV Annual PV system efficiency in first year (assumed as PV = 0.1)
APV Design collector area for standard efficiency [m/kW] (APV = 10 m/kW)
8760 represents the total hours per year
2000 2010 2020 2030 2040 2050
the number of novel conversion processes happening simultaneously, it may or
may not be
cost effective to simulate some before field tests. Simple thermodynamic
analysis of collector
dimensions is easy enough but the whole system would be difficult to rep
1 - Ferrofluid has two properties that can be exploited in this system: the ability
magneto-caloric pumping and reverse viscosity.
Magneto-Caloric Pumping - When the Curie temperature of the ferrofluid is
than that of the permanent magnet (in th
net electrical transfer rate at any given moment and is measured in Megawatts
Energy is electricity that flows through a metered point for a given period and is
measured in Megawatt Hours (MWh).
Markets for power related commodities are net generati
electricity) varies widely from country to country, and may vary signicantly from
locality to locality within a particular country. There are many reasons that
these differences in price. The price of power generation depends largely on the
with a simple turbine and generator, you could generate electricity on the ebb
flow of the
tide. You do some quick measurements and find that the area of the lagoon
dam would be about 5m wide by 20m long, and the lagoon would be about 3m
and cannot be delivered on demand. Wind power is stored for some seconds in
the rotating mass of the
wind turbines or as chemical or mechanical energy in batteries or large pump
storage systems. There
are also investigations on storing wind power in form
roof is heat and by its lower weight forced into the chimney, where it activates a
wind turbine for
power generation. They can be built in the range of 100 - 200 MW capacity.
Heat can be stored in the
soil and in water storage below the collector for nigh