Running Water, Streams, Deltas
Precipitation A) Infiltrate- ground water is used by plants (Evaportranspivation) B Surface. Sheet flow (overland flow) (Channelized)
Flow Type Laminar Flow (deep water) Turbulent Fl
P waves, S waves, and characteristics (solid/liquids, fast they travel, etc)
Review parts of earth
o Inner core, outer core, mantle, asthenosphere, lithosphere, oceanic and
Review Boundary (Gutenburg discontinuity and Moho d
3 reasons why groundwater is important
1. equalizer of stream flow conditions
2. water is purified (exceptions)
3. responsible for cave formation
Terminology (6 or 7 question):
Zone of Aeration- vadose zone or unsaturated zone, contains a mixt
Experiment 1: Index Minerals and Identification
Igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks exhibit different physical and chemical
properties that provide clues to identification. For example, igneous rocks often have feldspar
crystals, and sedimentary r
(modified from Stories in Stone, Session 4)
Stories in Stone is a teachers guide developed through the Lawrence Hall of Science at
the university of California Berkeley as part of the GEMS project (Great Explorations in
Math and S
Experiment 2: Mapping Earth's Tectonic Plates
Scientists developed the theory of plate tectonics by looking at the distribution of global
landforms and phenomena. In this activity, you will construct a map of the Earth's tectonic
plates using data includi
Outer Space to Earth: Meteorite or Not?
Meteorites are made up of 300 different minerals, which include minerals not found on
Earth. To distinguish a meteorite from a rock, many different characteristics must be
taken into consideration such as i
Why are streams and rivers so important?
Provide us with valuable drinking water
Support biological diversity
Create avenues of transportation that differ from automobiles
Contribute to agriculture
Create less flood hazards
Context of Volcanoes
Hot Spots (mantle plumes)
What defines the nature of eruption?
Viscosity of the lav
Includes all rocks that are not igneous or metamorphic
Dominated by rocks that were formed by lithification of pre-existing sediments
Also includes rocks that formed through chemical or biological crystallization or
Metamorphic Rocks: Rocks that have been changed in form and mineralogy from a parent rock,
under conditions of increased pressure and/or heat, up to, but not including melting.
Features of Metamorphic
Rearrangement of ions
Exam 1 Review
Physical geology defined. Physical geology is the actual structures and systems that make
Historical geology defined. Historical geology is the history behind how we got to this
point in geology and it helps us under
Foliated Rock Textures
Usually initial growth of mica crystals
Hardening of the rock
Low grade rocks
Phyllite is wavy in appearance
Larger, new crystals
Much more pronounced, layered appearance = foliation
What is groundwater?
The largest supply of fresh water. Most of the water that is used is groundwater in some
40 x lakes and reservoirs
4000 x river water
Need to know:
zone of aeration
zone of saturation
perched water table
Drainage basin- the land area that contributes water to a river system
Interfluve- region of higher land between two rivers that are in the same drainage
3 Controls on Stream velocity- 1. Gradient 2. Shape, size, roughness of channel
2 main controlling factors on the distribution of glaciers (diagram in
Elevation and Latitude
2 main kinds of glaciers
Alpine and Continental
Terminology (features, matching):
Erratics- big rocks left behind, carried In on ice shee
Exam 3 (Final) Review- December 14, 2009 10:30-12:30
Topics covered: Earthquakes, Earths Interior, Plate Tectonics, Orogenesis, Geological Time
Epics, Periods, Eons
Epicenter- location on the surface directly above the focus
Focus- the source o
Weathering, Soils, and Erosion
Weathering, Soils, and Erosion
Factors of soil formation 1. Parent Materials (rocks, sediments) 2. Climate 3.Organisms 4. Relief (low variations of elevation) 5. Time
How does weathering happen?
Weathering is the bre
discomforimity is a variety of unconformity when the rocks are jagged, that means water was there, water goes away and the rock is eroded, and then water comes back and puts more rock on top of that. when the rocks are tilted and horizontal, tectonic
What are metamorphic rocks?
Metamorphic rocks are rocks that have been changed in form and mineralogy from a protolyth, under conditions of increased pressure and/or heat, up to, but not including melting.
What are the Age
Chapter 3 What are minerals?
Minerals are Solid Naturally occurring Limited chemical composition can have the same chemical composition, but be a different mineral. crystal lattice-defined by the arrangement of the
What are Deserts?
Deserts are regions with dry climates (10-in of rain or less)
Where do they form?
Desert Climates Desert Water balance Moisture deficits Evaporation exceeds Precipitation Deserts versus steppes Arid versus semi-ari
Chapter 5 Where do volcanoes form?
P.154 concept art
Convergent plate boundaries (the most common and the most active) Ocean-Continent Andean Intraplate Overriding (TEXAS) Ocean-Ocean Island Arcs Aleutians Jap
Geology www.geol.unt.edu T.Boone pickens net worth $3 billion from TX oil, gas, water, wind b. 1938 . Actions and Consequences - oil drilling o Need for electrical gasoline, fuel, etc - Leak, spill gusher Sulfar Miners - inhale sulfar life span: 30 years
qREVIEW 1. charles l was important in catastrophic T or F 2. present is the key to the past. What is this talking about?Uniformitarianism 3. James hutton's contribution to geology? uniformitarianism 4. Two major groups or rock minerals silicates and nonsi