The chemistry of life:
All life on earth is chemical. All matter on earth are composed on elements
atom: smallest part of an emit that still retains the characteristics of that element.
Only 25 elements on the periodic table are found in o
September 7, 2016
Robert Hooke - 1635-1705- Jack of All Trades, or Master of Many.
surveying and map making
hooke improved on the hooke microscope .
and observed cells.
all cells arise
1. Living systems are incredibly diverse in size, shape, environment, and behavior. It is estimated that
there are between 10 million and 100 million different species. Despite this wide variety of
organisms, it remains difficult to define wh
Review for Lecture 1
Chapter 1 Introduction to Cells
All living creatures are made of _cells_. The simplest forms of life are solitary
_cells_ that propagate by dividing in two.
Higher organisms, such as ourselves, are like _derived by growth and
Review for Protein I and II
This is Study Guideline; you must study the PowerPoint, lecture notes and the textbook. Find
answers during the class and from the textbook.
1. Select the answer that best completes the following statement: Chemical reactions i
Review 6 Membrane Structure
Answers will not be provided!
Fill in the blanks in the
1. _lipids_ are compounds that are insoluble in water and but soluble in nonpolar organic solvents.
2. Classified according to their chemical nature
Please understand each step in DNA cloning. Also, make your own review based on what we learned during class.
DNA cloning production of many identical copies of DNA
Review for Cell Signaling
Answers will not be provided! You must study the lecture notes and textbook.
1. Regardless of the nature of the signal, the target cell responds by means of a specific protein
called a _, which binds the signaling molecule then i
Chapter 1 Scientific Thinking
The Scientific Method
1. Make observations
Look for patterns
Observe cause and effect
2. Formulate a hypothesis
A hypothesis that states a lack of relationship between two factors is called
a null hyp
Cell Biology Exam #2 Study guide
Membrane Structure (Chapter 11)
What are cell membranes composed of and what roles do membranes play in a cell?
Describe the general structure of a phospholipid. Compare to glycolipid. How do
phospholipids, glycolipids and
Cell Biology Exam #1 Study guide
This is intended to be a review sheet- THIS IS NOT A SET OF NOTES!
Organize your notes first, then work through these questions/concepts with a
group or by yourself, whatever works best for you.
Intro to Cells
CHAPTER 7: SENSING the ENVIRONMENT
Sensory channels provide the only channels of communication from the external world into the
nervous system. There is no evidence for "extrasenso
Cell Biology Lab Report Guidelines
First Section (title page)
Experiment Title (IN
Discussion of Results
Your Name (IN BOLD)
Group Members Names
State results and any uncertainties or results that
Initial Sample Clean Up
(Size Exclusion Chromatography)
Generate Standard Curve for Protein
Determine Sample Concentrations
2D Clean Up
1D Test of Sample
Report & Presen
1. signaling cells produce signaling molecules
all types of macromolecules and their building
blocks can be signaling molecules
2. target cells detect the signal using a receptor
3. signal transduction
Intracellular Transport II
Transport by vesicles moves proteins and lipids
between membrane compartments.
secretory pathway (pink):
ER to the GA to the plasma membrane
ER to the GA to endosome to the lysosome
endocytic pathway (green): plasma membrane t
Structure of the mitochondria
Mitochondria part list
Outer membrane contains porin which
forms large channels
Intermembrane space contains many of the
same molecules as the cytosol
Inner membrane impermeable to ions and
Cells contain many membrane-enclosed
Intracellular Transport I
Organelles perform diverse functions
endoplasmic reticulum (ER): membrane
synthesis, protein distribution
rough ER: ribosomes attached
smooth ER: Ca2+ sequestration etc.
1. For both actin and microtubule polymerization, nucleotide hydrolysis is important for _.
stabilizing the filaments once they are formed.
increasing the rate at which subunits are added to the filaments.
promoting nucleation of
Extra Slides for Lecture 2
Polar amino acid side chains tend to be
displayed on the outside of the folded protein,
where they can interact with water; the
nonpolar amino acid side chains are buried on
A cell must exchange molecules and ions with
The lipid bilayer of cell membranes highly
permeable to small nonpolar molecules
It is highly impermeable to most large watersoluble molecules and to all ions
Cell membranes are selective barriers.
4. enclosing compartments
: Internal membrane
The plasma membrane
Cell membranes are made of lipids and
Lipids: class of molecules that are
insoluble in water
Gene expression can be regulated at
Different cell types from the
same organism have the
Different cell types produce
different sets of proteins
accounting for differences in
cell appearance and
The Central Dogma
Differences between RNA and DNA
Gene A and gene B can be transcribed at different
rates, producing different amounts of RNA within the
RNA molecules can fold into specific
nucleotide sugar i
Nucleotides are composed of a base, sugar,
and phosphate group.
In deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), the sugar is
DNA and Chromosomes
HO P O CH2
Nucleotides are linked via
phosphodiester bonds to
Proteins are composed of chains of amino acids
linked together by peptide bonds.
General structure of an amino acid:
Amino acids can be grouped by their side chains.
Amino acids can be grouped by their side chains.
Dr. Hyunju Kim
MTWR 12:00 p.m.- 1:50 p.m.
General Academic Building (GAB) Room 104
Cells Vary Enormously in Appearance and
The fundamental similarity of cells of all types
makes it interesting to speculate on the
(60 points) Multiple Choice 30 questions
1. Which of the following is not a common feature of biological membranes?
Polar head groups of lipids are in contact with the aqueous environment