ECONOMICS 448, Review 4
16.12 The general expression for the value of a leveraged firm in a world in
which Ts=0 is
VL= VU+[1-(1-TC)(1-TS)/(1-TB)]B-C(B)
where:
VU = Value of an unlevered firm
TC = Efficient corporate tax rate for the firm
TB = Personal tax
Lecture Notes 11
The Arbitrage Pricing Theory
The basic idea
The APT aims to explain correlations between returns by developing a model of where those correlations come from.
This is most useful when one is attempting to make out of sample predictions.
Lecture Notes 10
The Capital Asset Pricing Model
Expected return, variance and standard deviation
The expected return on a security may be based:
i. on the historical returns earned in the past, or
ii. a fundamental analysis implying deviations from past
Lecture Notes 9
Introduction to Risk
Returns on stock
There are two components to the return on most stocks:
i. most, but not all, stocks pay a cash dividend; and
ii. a capital gain or loss which, if not realized, is re-invested.
If Dt+1 is the dividend
Lecture Notes 8
Risk Analysis, Real Options and Capital Budgeting
Sensitivity analysis
Sensitivity uses a range of values for annual revenues, costs, etc.
to examine how changes in underlying assumptions affect NPV.
Using a spreadsheet, a table of NPV v
Lecture Notes 7
Net Present Value and Capital Budgeting
Recipe for financial decision makers within a firm
i. Identify the size and timing of all relevant cash flows.
ii. Evaluate cash flow riskiness to get the relevant discount rate.
iii. Find the NPV of
Lecture Notes 6
Alternative Investment Rules
Key features of net present value
A firm operating in the interests of its shareholders should accept investment projects if and only if they have positive NPV.
The net present value criterion has three key f
Lecture Notes 5
Valuing Bonds and Stocks
Valuing bonds
A bond is a contract showing that a borrower owes:
i. a specified sum
ii. that will be repaid on a number of specified dates
iii. along with a schedule of interest payments.
1. Zero coupon bonds
A p
Lecture Notes 4
Net Present Value
Recipe for financial decision makers
i. Identify the size and timing of all relevant cash flows.
ii. Identify the riskiness of the cash flows in order to determine
the appropriate discount rate.
iii. Find the NPV of the c
Lecture Notes 3
Intertemporal Resource Allocation
The source of investment funds
Most consumers prefer to spread their consumption over time
and investment by firms provides a major way they can do so.
Other ways include:
i. Direct lending and borrowing
Lecture Notes 2
Accounting statements and cash flows
The Balance Sheet
A balance sheet provides a snapshot of the firms accounting
value at a particular date.
Current liabilities
Current assets
Net
Working
Capital
Fixed assets
1. Tangible fixed
assets
2.
Lecture Notes 1
What is Corporate Finance?
Corporate finance is concerned with:
* the capital budgeting decisions of a corporation the types and
proportions of real investments it chooses;
* the capital structure of the corporation the financial instrume
Introduction Lecture Notes
Economics and Corporate Finance
Some relevant economic concepts
Consumers are the drivers of a market economy:
* Business maxim: The customer always comes first.
* Efficiency reflects values of consumers
Supply and demand:
i.
Risk and Return
Holding Period Return
Three month ago, Peter Lynch purchased 100
shares of Iomega Corp. at $50 per share. Last
month, he received dividends of $0.25 per
share from Iomega. These shares are worth
$56 each today.
Compute Peters holding perio
Lecture 17
Lecture
Capital Budgeting
for Levered Firm
Three approaches
1. Adjusted Present Value (APV) approach
2. Flow to Equity (FTE) approach
3. Weighted Average Cost of Capital
(WACC) approach
Adjusted Present Value (APV) approach
Calculate NPV ignori
Lecture 16
Lecture
Limits to the Use of Debt
Personal Taxation of Corporate Income
While the corporate tax favors debt, the personal tax favors equity.
Dividends, like interest, are taxed as ordinary income, but capital
gains are taxed at preferential rat
Lecture 15
Lecture
Capital Structure
Basic Concepts
Focus on common stock and straight debt as representative
financial instruments. We ignore default for now.
The market value of the firm is V = B + S.
Maximizing total firm value is in the interest of sh
Lecture 14
Lecture
Long-Term Financing
Stocks (equity) and Bonds (debt)
Debt and equity are broad categories of firm liabilities.
Key distinguishing features of debt and equity are :
- Whether asset yields are a legal obligation or discretionary
- Whether
Lecture 13
Lecture
Efficient Capital Markets
Basic idea and implications for financing decisions
In efficient capital markets, asset prices prevent investors making
excess profits, relative to the risks, using public information.
In efficient capital mark
Lecture 12
Lecture
NPV Analysis Accounting for Risk
More risk requires a higher expected return
Corporate investments satisfy a risk-return separation theorem.
The expected return on a project has to compensate shareholder
for the systematic risk they are
Lecture 11
Lecture
The Arbitrage Pricing Theory (APT)
Basic Idea
APT aims to explain correlation between returns.
Whereas CAPM focuses on market risk, the APT argues that
each source of systematic risk will have an implicit market
price.
APT claims the ex
Lecture 10
Lecture
The Capital Asset Pricing Model
Preliminaries
Expectation, variance, standard error (deviation), covariance, and
correlation of returns may be based on
(i) fundamental analysis
(ii) historical data
Fundamental or Theoretical Analysis
No
Lecture 9
Lecture
Capital Market Theory : An Overview
Returns on Stock
Two components to the return on most stocks are dividend
and capital gain/loss (reinvested if not realized).
Let D t +1 be the dividend paid at the end of current period, and
Pt the pr
Lecture 8
Lecture
Strategy and Analysis in using NPV
NPV analysis
Applying NPV analysis requires judgements about revenues,
expenses, depreciation tax shields, true economic lives of
plant and equipment, and the appropriate discount rate.
The NPV analysis
Lecture 7
Lecture
NPV and Capital Budgeting
Cash flows calculations
NPV analysis is based on cash flows not accounting earnings.
Capital investments are treated as current expenses in cash
flow analysis, but are depreciated in earnings calculation.
Deprec
Lecture 6
Lecture
Alternative Investment Rules
The NPV Rule, a review
A firm operating in the interests of its shareholders should
accept investment projects if and only if they have
positive NPV
Three key features of the NPV criterion
NPV uses cash flows
Lecture 5
Lecture
How to Value Bonds and Stocks
Valuing Bonds
A bond is a certificate (contract) showing that a borrower owes
bond
a specified sum that will be repaid on a number of specified
dates, along with a schedule of interest payments
How to value
Lecture 4
Lecture
Net Present Value (NPV)
NPV calculation : single period case
C1
NPV = 0 +
C
1 +r
C0
initial cash outflow
C1
cash inflow in one period
C1
1+
r
present value of next periods cash flow
NPV calculation : multiple periods, annual compounding