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CS61C : Machine Structures
Lecture 3 Introduction to
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20140905
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UCB CS61C : Machine Structures
Lecture 10 Introduction to MIPS
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20140922
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inst.eecs.berkeley.edu/~cs61c
CS61C : Machine Structures
Lecture 12 Caches I
20140926
Instructor:
Miki Lustig
September 23: Another type of Cache
PayPal Integrates Bitcoin Processors BitPay, Coinbase and GoCoin
The eBayowned company wants to help digit
You are responsible for the material contained
on the following slides, though we may not have
enough 9me to get to them in lecture.
They have been prepared in a way that should
be easily readable.
30
Agenda
I
Equivalence
Michel M. Maharbiz
Vivek Subramanian
Cell Phone
Todays systems are complex. We use a block diagram approach to
represent circuit sections.
Equivalent Circuit Representation
Fortunately, many circuits are linear
Simple equivalent circuits may
EE 40 Semiconductor Basics II
(pn Junction Diode)
Carrier Drift
The process in which charged particles move
because of an electric field is called drift.
Charged particles within a semiconductor move with
an average velocity proportional to the electric
Equivalence Examples
Michel M. Maharbiz
Vivek Subramanian
Maximum Power Transfer
Maximum Power Transfer
The Wheatstone Bridge
+

The Wheatstone bridge is used to measure an unknown resistance.
It works by adjusting the known resistor values till the cu
EE 40 Semiconductor Basics
Slide 81
Whats inside the active devices?
EE 40
Spring 2012
Michel M.
The inside of active devices
Ive been avoiding the issue of how active
devices work all semester
passives
resistors (heat loss)
inductors (magnetic field
Analysis by Inspection
Michel M. Maharbiz
Vivek Subramanian
Nodal Analysis by Inspection
Requirement: All sources are independent current sources
Set up a matrix for all the nodes, as follows:
Example: Nodal by Inspection
Offdiagonal elements
Currents
Nodal Analysis
Michel M. Maharbiz
Vivek Subramanian
Specifying the Reference Node
NodeVoltage Method
Step 1:
a) Identify all extraordinary nodes
b) Select one as ground
c) Assign node voltage names to others
Node 1
Node 3
Node 2
Step 2:
a) Apply KCLs at
Mesh Analysis
Michel M. Maharbiz
Vivek Subramanian
MeshCurrent Method
Step 1:
Identify all meshes, and assign each
an unknown mesh current. For
convenience, use clockwise current
Step 2:
Set up KVLs for each mesh
Step 3:
Solve the resulting simultaneo
Linearity and Superposition
Michel M. Maharbiz
Vivek Subramanian
Linearity
A circuit is linear if its output is proportional to its input
A function f(x) is linear if f(ax) = af(x)
All circuit elements will be assumed to be linear or can be
modeled by l
Transformations
Michel M. Maharbiz
Vivek Subramanian
Reminder: Independent Sources
Voltage Source
I
Resistor
(slope = 1/R)
Current Source
Ideal
Voltage Source
Ideal Current
Source
V
Reminder: Realistic Sources
Source Transformation
Hence,
For the two circ
Circuit Analysis Basics
Michel M. Maharbiz
Vivek Subramanian
Circuit Topology
Branch: single element, such as a resistor or source
Node: connection point between two or more branches
Extraordinary Node: connection point between at least 3 branches
Loo
Semiconductor Fabrication
Michel M. Maharbiz
Vivek Subramanian
Some basic terminology
Wafer: Thin slice of semiconductor
material with highly polished surface
Processed wafer is cut into many
dies or chips.
Lithography: Processes that define
spatial patte
Ohms Law and power
Michel M. Maharbiz
Vivek Subramanian
Ohms Law
The Voltage across a resistor is proportional to current
i
The proportionality constant is resistance
iR
R
i
Resistance: ability to resist flow of electric current
r resistivity, = conduct
Circuit Analysis with Ideal Op Amps
Michel M. Maharbiz
Vivek Subramanian
Circuit Analysis With Ideal Op Amps
Use nodal analysis as before, but with these golden rules:
Both inputs are at the same voltage
N
Do not apply KCL at op amp output
No current in
Charge, Voltage, and Current
Part 2
Michel M. Maharbiz
Vivek Subramanian
Voltage
VAB is the voltage difference between point A and point B
VAB is the amount of energy gained or lost per unit charge in
moving between A and B
Voltage is a relative quanti
Introduction to Amplifiers
Michel M. Maharbiz
Vivek Subramanian
Amplifiers
Amplifier Packaging
Amplifier Modules
Real Voltage Amplifier
A real voltage amplifier has three important imperfections. First, the input
current is nonzero. Which means it has f
Charge, Voltage, and Current
Michel M. Maharbiz
Vivek Subramanian
Charge
Unit of charge = coulomb
Charge can be either positive (+)
or negative ()
The fundamental quantity of
charge is that of a single electron
or proton.
Charge magnitude is usually
d
Operational Amplifiers (Op Amps)
Michel M. Maharbiz
Vivek Subramanian
Operational Amplifiers
Operational Amplifier Op Amp
Two input terminals,
positive (non inverting)
and negative (inverting)
One output
Power supply V+ , and
Op Amp with power supply
Introduction to MOSFETs
Michel M. Maharbiz
Vivek Subramanian
MOSFET (Field Effect Transistor)
Active Device: Voltage Controlled Current Source
Gate voltage controls drain/source current
MOSFET Equivalent Circuit
Characteristic curves
Idealized response
Ex
Second order circuits
in the time domain
Michel M. Maharbiz
Vivek Subramanian
Second Order Circuits
A second order circuit is
characterized by a second order
differential equation
Resistors and two energy storage
elements
Determine voltage/current as a
Lecture 0:
Administrivia
www.eecs.berkeley.edu/~maharbiz/
EE 40
Fall 2011
Michel M.
Course Outline / Requirements
Professor
Michel M. Maharbiz, EECS
646 Sutardja Dai Hall (SDH)
Lecture
Monday, Wednesday, Friday
10 am 11 am
105 Stanley
Office Hours
Active Filters
Michel M. Maharbiz
Vivek Subramanian
Active Lowpass Filter
Active Highpass Filter
Cascading Active Filters
Example: ThirdOrder Lowpass Filter
Example: Bandreject Filter
Example: Bandreject Filter
Digital Circuits
Michel M. Maharbiz
Vivek Subramanian
A quick history lesson
1850: George Boole invents Boolean algebra
1938: Claude Shannon links Boolean
algebra to switches
1945: John von Neumann develops first
stored program computer
Switching elem
Bode Plot Examples
Michel M. Maharbiz
Vivek Subramanian
Bandpass RLC Filter revisited
Bandpass RLC Filter (cont.)
Wstor is the maximum energy
that can be stored in the
circuit at resonance ( = 0)
Wdiss is the energy dissipated
by the circuit during a si
Bode Plots
Michel M. Maharbiz
Vivek Subramanian
Frequency Response
Transfer function of a circuit or system describes the output response to an input
excitation as a function of the angular frequency .
Magnitude
Phase
dB Scale
Example: RL filter, Magnitud
Bode Plot Examples
Michel M. Maharbiz
Vivek Subramanian
Bode Plots
Example
Standard form
Numerator: simple zero of second
order with corner frequency 5 rad/s
Denominator: pole @ origin, and
simple pole with corner frequency
50 rad/s
Bode Plots
Another Exa