Chapter 9: Group Processes
What Is a Group?
Three or more people who interact and are interdependent in the sense that their needs and
goals cause them to influence each other.
Groups help us define who we are, help establish social norms, and feel dist
10-22-08 In a study of stereotype threat in sports, white participants performed better than black participants when they were told they were going to be judged on sports intelligence. When they were told they were going to be judged on natural abili
Test 3 Social Psychology Chapter 11
Prejudice: the general attitude we have toward members of a particular group Stereotype: generalized beliefs we hold about groups (beliefs that reflect what we think members of a particular group are like) Implicit
a. Attribution Theory
i. Internal Attribution
ii. External Attribution
b. Fundamental Attribution Error or Correspondence Bias
i. Perceptual Salience
ii. Manipulating Perceptual Science
iii. Two-Step P
Stereotype: A generalization about a group of people in which identical
characteristics are assigned to virtually all members of the group, regardless of actual
variation among the members.
The law of least effort: Because the world is too co
Stress and Human Health
Health Psychology: The study of behavioral and psychological factors that
When people undergo a major upheaval in their lives, such as losing a spouse,
declaring bankruptcy, or being forced to resettle in a
Jurors tend to overestimate the accuracy of eyewitnesses.
In 73% of the 314 DNA-exoneration cases involving an innocent person being convicted of a
crime, the conviction was based on faulty eyewitness identification.
Applied Research in Social Psychology
Kurt Lewin, founder of imperial social psychology
Lewin made three key points about social psychology:
1. Social psychological questions are best tested with the experimental method.
2. These studies can be us
What Causes Attraction
Self-expansion: The desire to overlap or blend with another person so you have access to that persons
knowledge, insights, and experience and thus broaden and depend your own experience of life.
The Person Next Door: The
Chapter 12: Aggression
What Is Aggression?
Aggression: Intentional behavior aimed at doing harm or causing pain to
o It is intended
o It is behavior
o It is aimed at hurting
o Being angry is not being aggressive, but acting on it is.
Conformity: A change in ones behavior due to the real or imagined influence
of other people.
Informational Social Influence: The influence of other people that leads us to
conform because we see them as a source of information
Maintaining A Positive Self-Image
Cognitive Dissonance: A drive or feeling of discomfort, originally
defined as being caused by holding two or more inconsistent cognitions
and subsequently defined as being caused by performing an action that
People are not neutral observers of the world. They evaluate what they encounter,
and form attitudes.
Attitudes: evaluations of people, objects, and ideas.
o Made up of 3 components:
An attitude based more on
Independent view of the self- a way of defining oneself in
terms of ones own internal thoughts, feelings, and
actions and not in the terms of the thoughts, feelings and
actions of other people.
o Western cultures
REVIEW INFORMATION FINAL EXAM, SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY,
Unless specifically excluded, the whole text matters. This
review will point out some things that may not be in text or are
areas that might require special attention.
As noted on the syllabus,
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Chapter 12: A guide to Dealing with Adversity and Achieving a Happy Life
Everyone suffers from loneliness but it is a temporary state
We belong to many different groups because it not only prevents us from
feeling isolated it also has beneficial effects