Facultatively Anaerobic Gram-Negative Rods
T a b l e 5.1.
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Alexander Flemming discovered antibiotics in the early half of the 1900s. He grew this Petri plate of bacteria (seen
below) but it was contaminated with a mold (the large white spot). He noticed that around the mold, no bacteria could
grow. Hence, he disc
Symptoms: headache, fever, pain, last
two different proteins on the envelope:
Hemagglutinin (H) spike
Serves as the host cell receptor
Viruses have several methods that they can remain
within the body without being detected and/or
1. They can integrate their DNA (or RNA
converted to DNA) into our DNA.
Some viruses like AIDS and herpes can splice
Made up of 20 amino acids
have many different
functions including enzymes,
3 amino acids
Made of nucleotides
Each nucleotide has 3 basic
Nitrogen containing base
This powerpoint is looking at some of the Toxins that bacteria produce. Toxin are another
way that bacteria have to cause damage to our body. There are two categories of toxins, as
If a bacterial cell produces an exotoxin,
There areTwo major types of
Do not have a nucleus
Examples include all
Have a nucleus
everything but bacteria
Prokaryotic cell notice the lack of
Eukaryotic cell notice all th
All cells have Cytoplasm
The water solution inside a cell
Most chemical reactions take place in the
All cells have a Chromosome
Bacteria have a single, circular chromosome
The chromosome is located in the Nuclear
Region of the cell
There are three basic shapes of
Cocci round shaped
Bacilli rod shaped
There are 5 different arrangements you can find
cocci bacteria: Single cocci (individuals)
Tetrad (sets of four)
Streptococci (in a chain)
Bacterial cells can divide every 20 to 30 minutes. The process of a bacterial cell dividing is called BINARY FISSION.
This process occurs in 3 steps. The first step, the I period, is when the cell grows longer so it can be cut in half. The
second step, th
Microbiology II Exam Review
Alexandria Murdock- GRADE: 91
HOST MICROBE RELATIONSHIP
What are the three symbiotic relationships between microbes and the
human body? (Symbiosis- Interactions between organisms living
a) Commensalism Microbe benefi
MICROBIOLOGY EXAM 4
4.1- Sexually Transmitted Diseases
1) Know the following characteristics about each bacterial disease studied for
this unit. (LOOK ON STD SHEET)
2) Who discovered Neisseria gonorrhoeae?
a) Albert Neisser
3) What role do p
Be sure to review the following concepts for Exam I. This review by NO means attempts
to cover all of the information given in lecture. Use this outline as an extra study aid in
preparing for the exam.
I. Historical Roots of Microbiology
HECO 1410- GRADE: 98
EXAM 1 REVIEW SHEET
Chronic vs. Acute Disease symptoms
a) Chronic disease is slow progression over a long
period; heart disease. Affected by quality.
b) Acute disease comes on quickly but is also resolved
Review Sheet Exam #4
a) Instrument used to measure energy value.
b) Overstated value of the energy the body derives from food.
c) Direct calorimetry
Appetite, Hunger, Satiety, Satiati
Science of Nutrition
Review Sheet Exam 2
CHAPTER FOUR: CARBS
a) Monosaccharides- Single Sugars
1. Glucose- Commonly known as blood sugar; essential
energy source for the body.
2. Fructose- Sweetest of all sugars;
MICROBIOLOGY EXAM 5 REVIEW
FINAL Ali Murdock97
5.1 Biological Warfare
1. What period in the history of the United States represents the Golden
Age of Biological Warfare Research?
2. What is a biological weapon (BW)?
a) Living organisms/infe
Chapters 10, 11
Exam 5 Review Sheet
a) Form they are in food is inactive form, known as a precursor.
b) Once consumed, it is converted to its active form.
c) Consideration must be made for the amount of active vitamin