Barriers help an animal to defend itself from the many dangerous pathogens it may encounter.
Pathogens: agents that cause disease
- infect a wide range of animals
Adaptations have arisen over the course of evolution that protect animals against many invad
Physiological systems of animals operate in a fluid environment
For humans & birds, maintaining the fluid environment of their cells, tissues, & organs requires
keeping relative concentrations of water & solutes within fairly narrow limits.
In addition, i
Ecdysteroid- a hormone that stimulates growth of adult cells, the programmed death of larval cells, &
even the behaviors that bring about the motionless pupil stage
Metamorphosis- a complete change in body form
- insect metamorphosis is regulated by hormo
The exchange of nutrients is the molecular trade an animal carries out with its environment that must
ultimately involve every cell in the body.
O2 and CO2 (small/nonpolar) can move between cells and their immediate surroundings by diffusion.
Needs for animals
Animals must consume food for both energy and the organic molecules used to assemble new
molecules, cells, and tissues.
- an adequate diet satisfies 3 nutritional needs: chemical energy for cellular processes, organic
building blocks for
Animal form & function/body plans.adaptations
Anatomy: the biological form of an organism
Physiology: the biological functions an organism performs
Form and function are closely related
- an animals size and shape are fundamental aspects of form that dire
Lab Report 4
Student Name: Mariah Clemons
Define the following terms.
Cells with similar structure and function
Integrated tissues and their functions. Organs can be composed of
more than one tissue type
Contrast the terms endocrine, paracrine, and autocrine. (Points : 9)
The effects of hormones can be classified by three main categories. If a hormone is released
and travels via blood circulation and produces a biological effect on its target organ, it ca
1. The normal value for urine osmolarity is 500 mOsm/L.
Typically, ADH should be released from the hypothalamus. In Jennifer's case, she did not have
any ADH released, so the concentration of water is much higher inside of the distal convoluted
1. How were Shirleys symptoms of weight gain and cold intolerance consistent with a
diagnosis of hypothyroidism? (Points : 5)
Question 2.2. Review the regulation of thyroid hormone secretion by the hypothalamic
anterior pituitarythyroid axis. List the pot
Oat cell carcinomas of the lung may secrete antidiuretic
hormone (ADH). Unlike ADH secretion from the posterior
pituitary, ectopic hormone secretion from the cancer cells is
not feedback regulated. As a result, blood levels of ADH can
1. Shirleys symptoms of weight gain and cold intolerance were consistent with a diagnosis of
hypothyroidism. Since it is known that thyroid hormone will increase both the oxygen
consumption and the basal metabolic rate, and that will increase heat product
Experiment 1: Electrostatics and Magnetostatics
With lab partners:
The purpose of this experiment was to learn about static charge production and to
learn about elementary magnetostatic i
1. What is the mechanism by which small, benign neoplasms arising from
endocrine organs produce deleterious affects on the patient? (Points : 5)
Question 2.2. Name the hormones secreted by the adrenal medulla. How are
they classified? (Points : 3)