Tolerance to one type of depressant, such as alcohol, can lead to the development of crosstolerance for another depressant, such as benzodiazepines.
The synergistic effect of drugs refers to
The combination of two or m
Drugs work by influencing existing neurotransmitters, existing neurological pathways, and receptor sites
in the central nervous system, including the addiction pathway.
On which part of the body does long-term use of stimulants (e.g., nicotine, cocai
Accuracy of Metamemory
-Ss presented unrelated word pairs (E.g., DISEASE
-Ss told they would receive a paired-associates test later
-S presented one word (DISEASE), and have to
respond with other word (RAILROAD)
-Knowledge or awareness of your own cognitive processes
-You can gauge how well you know something (e.g., have I studied enough?)
-You know factors that influence your learning (e.g., type of material, time of day, etc.)
-You can c
Why Can't children remember infancy?
They don't know how to get it?
Not enough retrieval cues, because no language?
Forgetting as Retrieval Failure
Tulving & Psotka (1971)
Acquisition of Linguistic Memories
How about for studying for this class!
Learn in this room:
Take test in different room:
Good Test score?
Design for Godden and Baddeley
(b) Results for each test condition are indicat
What is creativity?
The ability to think creatively
Formulate innovative ways
Find solutions to situations
Whether simple, day-to-day situations or problem-solving
The ability to express and portray artistically
Linguistic Memory Retrieval
Tasks used to test retrieval:
Relearning/Savings Task (Ebbinghaus)
Availability vs. Accessibility
Endel Tulving (1960's)
Feeling of Knowing(FOK)
Feeling you get in TOT state
May indicate partial activation of info
Strong FOK may indicate a need for more
Strong FOKs typically lead to faster
Psychological Approach to
Creativity Linguistically Expressed
Where does creativity originate from?
1. Mystical Approach
Muse or devine intervention
Kipling: My Daemon was with me.
2. Psychodynamic Approach
Primary vs. Secondary Processes
Mnemonics are memory strategies
Literally means to help the memory
Based on three principles:
1. Provides structure for learning material
2. Ensures a durable record of information
3. Guides retrieval by providing stable cues
Methods Using Imagery
-Good for vocabulary and foreign
-Uses keyword in one language that
sounds similar to new language
Note: ALWAYS make sure you have a plan for translating the image or it will not work.