Deformation (strain) of the earths crust occurs in response to stress.
Type of deformation dependent on
type of strain
rate of application
Geologists characterize deformation in 3-d by using 2 measurements
Chapter 4: Volcanoes and other igneous activity
Volcano: Hill or mountain built of lava and/or pyroclastic material erupted from one or
Vent: surface opening of a conduit or pipe; where eruptive material comes to the surface.
3 main types o
Shoreline line that marks the contact between land and ocean.
Tides daily rise and fall of water level due to attraction of the earths water to the moon
Moon is the primary influence on tides, sun is secondary.
Sediment any loose material
Rock an aggregation of minerals and sediment held together in a coherent mass
Sedimentary rock rock formed by lithification at or near the earths surface at low
pressures and temperatures. May be cla
Vast majority of water on/in the earth is saltwater.
Hydrologic cycle tracks movement of Earths water.
All flowing bodies of water confined to channels are STREAMS.
Fit of continents
Location of mountain ranges
Problems with Continental Drift theory
Development of Technology
World War II submarine warfare necessitated mapping of ocean floor
PHYSICAL GEOLOGY (GEOL 1054)
Instructor: Dr. Beth Rinard
Instructors Office: Room 139E, Science Building
Instructors Phone: (254) 968-9894
Office hours: Monday 1:30-3pm or Thursday 1:30-3pm; or please call/email to make an appointment.
Divergent Boundaries: Origin and Evolution of the Ocean Floor
Note: The divergent boundary part was largely covered in Chapter 2, so we wont be
spending much time on that here. The focus will be the Ocean Floor.
Methods of ocean exploration
Mountain Building and the Evolution of the Continents
Orogenesis (aka orogeny) mountain building.
Mountains built for a number of reasons including
Subduction that leads to volcanic activity
Volcanic activity at mid-ocean
Matter and Minerals, Chapter 2
Atom smallest part of matter that still retains the characteristics of an element.
Atomic mass number
Electron [Energy] s
Metamorphism literally change form, is the set of process in which a pre-existing
rock undergoes changes from exposure to heat, pressure, and/or chemical fluids.
Parent rock the pre-existing rock that is metamorphosed. Can be i
Mass Wasting: The Work of Gravity
Mass wasting has helped shape the landscape we have today.
It is a natural process, and is in most cases beyond the control of humans.
Mass wasting downslope movement of material. Material moves under the influ
Chapter 3, Igneous Rocks
Magma molten rock; a silicate melt (a liquid produced from the melting of predominantly
Lava magma above the Earths surface
Magma formed by partial melting of a small part of the mantle. A small % of the rock in
Infiltration water soaks into the ground.
Zone of aeration
Zone of saturation
Water table top of zone of saturation.
Porosity percentage of a rock that is open space.
Permeability how well connected pores are; ability to transmit a
Glaciers and Glaciation
Glacier mass of ice that moves downhill under its own weight.
Snow Granular snow Firn (granular ice) Glacial ice
The older the ice is, the deeper it is in the glacier, the larger its crystals are.
Zone of accumulation
Seismology study of earthquakes, and of energy that moves through the earth
Earthquake sudden movement of the earth. Occurs along a fault
Fault break in the earth along which movement occurs
Focus location (underground) where an earthquake beg
Weathering and Soil
Weathering breaking down of rocks by physical, chemical, or biological means.
Erosion transportation of weathered material, usually by water, wind, or ice.
Regolith fragments of rocks and minerals, the products of weathering