Principles of Drug Action (BIO 365D) Test #2
October 26, 2009
Each of the 12 multiple choice questions is worth 0.75 marks out of 30.
1. Selectivity of drug distribution can be achieved in many ways. For example propantheline
and atropine are both
Principles of Drug Action (BIO 365D) Final Exam
November 15, 2012
Each of the 38 multiple choice questions is worth 0.5 marks (for a total of 19 out of 40).
1. Etorphine is an opioid receptor agonist with a chemical structure similar to that of mo
Name:_ Principles of Drug Action (BIO 365D) Final Exam
May 13, 2006 Each of the 30 multiple choice questions is worth 0.5 marks (for a total of 15 out of 40). 1. Which one of the following routes of drug administration DOES NOT involve a needle? A. Intrat
Principles of Drug Action (BIO 365) Test #2
March 22, 2013
Each of the 12 multiple choice questions is worth 1 mark out of 30.
1. W hich one of the following statements is TRUE?
The acetylcholine molecule can convert between the cis and trans fo
365) Test #2
October 29, 2012
Principles of Drug Action (BIO
Each of the 14 multiple choice questions is worth 1 mark out of 30.
1. Lets start off with a really easy question. Ultimate carcinogens produce cancer by binding to
Principles of Drug Action (BIO 365) Test #1
February 19, 2007
Each of the 16 multiple choice questions is worth 0.75 marks out of 30.
1. The antipsychotic haloperidol is sold under the tradenames Haldol and Bioperidol, among others. What ki
Principles of Drug Action (BIO 365D) Test #2
March 28, 2007 Each of the 12 multiple choice questions is worth 0.75 marks out of 30.
1. Selectivity of drug distribution can be achieved in many ways. For example propantheline and atropine are
The half-life of a drug is 4 hours and its volume of distribution in a patient is
(A) What infusion rate is required to maintain a concentration of 20 mg/L in
Q = Css * k * V and k = 0.693/t1/2 = 0.693/4 = 0.173 hr-1.
Therefore Q = 20
Despite relatively recent identification of antiviral
medications the primary approach to controlling virus is
prevention (eg. vaccinations, prophylactic treatment of
Antiviral medication development has been slow because
Principles of Drug Action (BIO 365D)
Dr. John Mihic
Section of Neurobiology
Office hours: Monday & Friday 11 noon and Tuesday 10-noon
Course notes, syllabus, and tests from previous years
can be found on the course website
The first clinically useful antibiotic was penicillin, discovered
by Fleming in 1928 (from the penicillium mold).
Much work has been done in structurally modifying the
natural antibiotics and most antibiotics in current use are
Drug Solubility and Absorption
Goal of drug administration: get an adequate (but not
toxic) concentration of drug to the necessary site of
action as quickly as possible and to maintain that
concentration as continuously and evenly as
Route of dr
Dependence of drug absorption on pH and drug protonation
Almost all drugs can be classified as: (1)
uncharged molecules; (2) organic acids;
or (3) organic amines.
For example, an amine type of drug can
take two forms as shown to the right;
1. Detoxification of drugs and toxins
2. Formation of bile (required for absorption of fats and fatsoluble vitamins)
3. Manufacture of plasma proteins (albumin & blood
4. Urea formation (from ammonia and CO )
Protein binding and
Only free drug (unbound) can reach
its sites of action to exert a
Binding to plasma proteins
decreases the maximum intensity of
action of a single dose of a drug
because it lowers peak fr
A review of fate of drugs in the body.
The quantitative description of the rates of the various steps of drug
1. absorption of drugs
2. distribution to organs and tissues
3. elimination by biotransformation and exc
Effect of dosing on duration of drug
action can be dramatic if
absorption is not fast in comparison
At low doses the drug effect
appears quite late and lasts only a
short time. Larger doses bring
about an earlier appearance of the
Time to steady state concentration
Once again assume a drug follows first-order kinetics and is administered
by continuous iv administration.
The Css depends on the rates of administration and elimination of the drug.
However, the rate of approach to
Antidepressants and mood stabilizers
Antidepressants are used to treat affective disorders
1. Major depression
2. Bipolar disorder (manic depressive)
1. Must have depression for at least 2 weeks (or mania for 1).
2. Signs include depressed mood,
Characteristics of psychosis
1. Delusions; fixed false beliefs. Eg., The government is monitoring
my brain waves.
2. Hallucinations - the experience of perceptual sensations in the
absence of stimulation. These may be visual or aural (eg.,
of cancer is a
Initiation of carcinogenesis
The covalent binding of the ultimate carcinogen to DNA
alters the coding of the DNA at that site, and if not
detected and corrected before cell division, may lead
Principles of cancer chemotherapy
1. A clonogenic cell has the potential to produce progeny to such an
extent that results in the death of the host. The goal of
chemotherapy is to kill all clonogenic cells.
2. A constant fraction of cancer cells is killed
History and miscellaneous facts
Teratology is the study of congenital (birth) defects. Even 7000 years
ago the Babylonians were aware of at least 62 abnormalities that could
be recognized at birth.
As mentioned in an earli
Pharmacological principles of chemical teratogenesis
Placental transfer. The placenta is not a barrier completely
protecting the fetus from external chemicals; instead it acts
as a type of sieve, allowing small chemicals (<600 Da) and
excluding only those
Behavioural pharmacology is the study of changes in
behaviour produced by a drug, and the mechanisms by
which the drug produces these changes.
Ultimately we are concerned by the behavioural effects of
drugs in humans, but we perfo
Behavioural Pharmacology II
Effects of drugs on learning and memory
Learning can be defined as a semi-permanent change in behaviour
resulting from the occurrence of a previous event. Memory is the
storage of learned information in a manner that permits it
Behavioural Pharmacology III
Behavioural models of mental disorders
Animal models of human disorders are useful in the
development of new drugs for those disorders.
A. Models for Anxiety
1. Elevated plus maze
An elevated plus maze is a cross-shaped (t-sha
Drug abuse and dependence
No agreement has been reached on the exact definition of
the word addiction. The pattern of behaviour leading to
the excessive use of psychoactive substances is generally
referred to as drug dependence.
Drug dependence can be def
Tolerance to drugs
There are two forms of
tolerance to drugs:
1. Metabolic (pharmacokinetic)
2. Functional (pharmacodynamic)
After the chronic administration of many drugs, tolerance
can be seen to develop.
This means that higher doses of the drugs may ne
Drugs of abuse: pot, speed, crack, acid and XTC
The hemp plant (Cannabis sativa) produces a number of chemically
related compounds of which 1- 9-tetrahydrocannabinol is the primary active
ingredient. The dried leaf material is marijuana (or grass