Chapter 23 Integration and Hormonal Regulation of Mammalian Metabolism
The release of insulin from the pancreas is triggered or stimulated by A.low intracellular levels of glucose. B.a drop in intracellular ATP. C.the opening of Ca2+ channels in the plasm
The major fates of glucose (glucose 6-phosphate) in the liver include all of the following except? A) B) C) D) E) glycogen ribose 5-phosphate TAG synthesis ketone body synthesis ATP synthesis (via TCA and oxidative phosphorylation)
Chapter 24 DNA Supercoi
Newborn infants sometimes develop jaundice because of an accumulation of A.heme. B.biliverdin. C.urobilin. D.bilirubin.
C o v a le n t m o d i c a tio n s o f g lu ta m in e s y n th e ta s e :
AT adenylyltransferase Adenylylation of tyr residue near acti
Plants can carry out A.nitrogen assimilation. B.denitrification. C.nitrification. D.nitrogen fixation.
The nitrogen cycle:
(plants & Bacteria)
Nitrogen xation -the nitrogenase complex
N2 + 3H2 2NH3
D in it r o g e n a s e r e d u c t
Which of the following is true about all amino acids? A. Degradation generates products that can enter the citric acid cycle. B. They cannot be catabolized by humans. C. The rst step of catabolism is always the removal of the -amino group. D. They can be
Chapter 21 - Lipid Biosynthesis Fatty acid synthesis and regulation Triacylglycerol synthesis
-Oxidation and Fatty Acid Synthesis
Why is malonyl-CoA used in fatty acid synthesis?
U ltim a te ly , a ll c a r b o n s in f a tty a c id s a r e d e r iv e d f
Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase: activation of acetyl-CoA
A c e ty l- C o A + A T P + H C O 3 M a lo n y l- C o A + A D P + P i
F ig u r e 2 1 - 1
(Biotin is temporary carrier of carboxylate group)
T h e g e n e r a l s c h e m e f o r m a k in g f a tty a
C a lv in c y c le a c c o u n tin g :
+ 3Cs enter as CO2 3 x 5 = 15Cs
F ig u r e 2 0 - 1 4
3 x 6 = 18Cs
- 3Cs exit as a triose phosphate (net product)
6 NADPH and 9 ATP required for net synthesis of 1 molecule glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate
Overall carbon as
R e v ie w c a r b o h y d r a te m e ta b o lis m C a lv in c y c le ( c a r b o n a s s im ila tio n ) in p la n ts R e g u la tio n o f c a r b o n a s s im ila tio n in p la n ts
W h a t is th e d if f e r e n c e b e tw e e n c
The coenzyme required for all transaminations is derived from: A. B. C. D. E. niacin. pyridoxine (vitamin B6). riboflavin. thiamin. vitamin B12.
O v e r v ie w o f a m in o g r o u p c a ta b o lis m ( v e r te b r a te liv e r ) .
F ig u r e 1 8 - 2 a
C h a p te r 1 8 M e ta b o lis m o f a m in o g r o u p s a n d th e U r e a C y c le
If a person's urine contains unusually high concentrations of urea, which one of the following diets has he or she probably been eating recently? A) High carbohydrate,
Steroid hormones alter gene expression by A.activating their receptors, making them capable of binding hormone response elements (HREs) in DNA. B.having hormone response elements (HREs) that bind DNA. C.activating their receptors, making their hormone res
Which of the following occurs in a cell as a result of insulin binding to its receptor?
A.Cyclic GMP is produced. B.Glucose is released from the cell. C.The glucose transporter GLUT4 moves from the plasma membrane to internal membrane vesicles. D.Glycogen
Which of the following occurs in the degradation pathway of AMP?
A.AMP is converted to adenosine. B.The end product is urea. C.Adenine is converted to hypoxanthine. D.Adenosine is converted to adenine.
Catabolism of purine nucleotides