Lecture 37: Transgenic Organisms
December 7 , 2012
A transgenic organism contains a foreign gene (a transgene), has altered characteristics due
to expression of the foreign gene, and transmits the foreign gene to its offspring. Like many
Yeast Culture Lab Spreadsheet
Use this table to record the data you collected from the Yeast Culture Lab.
1 (0 hours)
2 (24 hours)
3 (48 hours)
Lecture 35: DNA Typing and Forensics
DNA typing data
Probability and genotype frequency in
Iden;ca;on of the Romanovs
Mitochondrial DNA SNPs
A standard set of 13 SSR loci are
Lecture 31: Viral Gene1cs
Composi1on of viruses
Viral life cycles
Viruses and cancer (HPV)
Viruses and an1genic shiC (Inuenza)
Do not transport substances
From Genotype to Phenotype
Overview of transmission genetics
What determines which chromosomes you get?
meiosis, recombination, gamete formation
What determines which of your alleles will be expressed?
dominance and expression patter
I. Chromosomal rearrangements
A. Deletion - partial loss of chromosome
B. Duplication - partial repeat of chromosome
C. Inversion - partial reorientation of chromosome
D. Translocation - displacement of genes
Mitosis and Meiosis
1. Define chromatin, chromosome, chromatid.
2. What are homologous chromosomes?
3. What are the chromosomal movements and
cellular mechanisms of mitosis?
4. Cellular basis of meiosis and similarities/
Why is interac2on with the environment
important for cells?
The steps of cell communica2on
Signals and receptors
Agonist and antagonists
The plasma membrane interacts with
Enzyma7c ac7va7on and inac7va7on of
Protein kinase signal transduc7on
Response to signaling
Ligand receptor interac7ons are
Lecture 26: Bioenerge0cs
Energy ow in living organisms obeys the laws
Enzymes reduce ac0va0on energy
Ar0s0c rendi0on of the ow of energy
T he g reen
Introduc)on to Cellular
Two methods of glucose catabolism
Using the locks!
Three phases of respira)on
via NADH and
Lecture 37: Transgenic Organisms
Making human proteins in bacteria
Viruses as vectors
Soma<c cell gene therapy
Making germ-line transgenics (not in humans!)
Lecture 24- Protein Sor0ng and
Chaperones help proteins fold into their
func0onal 3-D forms.
Some proteins are synthesized in the cytosol.
They may stay in the cytosol or be targeted to
The Gene'c Code
Famous experiments that cracked the code
The code is colinear with amino acid sequence
The code is non-overlapping
The code is a triplet
Decoding the triplets
tRNAs are adapters betwee
Lecture 34 and 35: Variation in the Human Genome
November 30, December 3, and part of December 5, 2012
If it is possible, the two human genomes are surprisingly similar and different at the same
time; they are 99.9% identical, yet that still
Lectures 32 and 33: The Human Genome Project
November 26 and 28, 2012
The human genome is made up of 3 billion DNA base pairs. Variation in the DNA sequence
from person to person results in differences in appearance, health, and even personal
Lecture 31: Viral Genetics
November 19, 2012
Viruses are not cells and they do not carry out some of the cellular functions we have
talked about this semester. Viruses do infect cells and they are able to co-opt many
cellular processes in ord
Predict the effect of gene linkage on offspring
Be able to map relative position of gene loci using
Discuss various maps and mapping methods
Practice Genetics, end of Ch 7: 18ab, 20, 24, 29ab
What possible gametes can a dihybrid individual form?
How does the branch diagram method (= forked line
method) generate expected phenotype ratios?
Whats a test cross? How can you use te
Lectures 32 & 33: The Human Genome Project
Fragmen:ng the genome
Separa:ng DNA pieces by size
DNA cloning vectors
Sequencing the genome
Standard Sanger sequencing
Lecture 25- Cell Membranes
(and protein sor8ng/secre8on)
Finish protein sor8ng/secre8on
What macromolecules are part of cell
What molecules can cross a lipid bilayer?
Diusion vs. Passive transport vs. Ac8v
Amino acids are monomers in a polypep3de
The R-group of an amino acid determines its
Proteins can have four levels of structure
(primary, secondary, ter3ary, and quaternary).
Lecture 23: Transla0on
Where and when does transla0on take place?
Transla0on occurs in four steps (tRNA charging,
ini0a0on, elonga0on, termina0on)
How does the ribosome know where to start?
Lecture 20 Introduc.on to Cell Biology
Characteris.cs of life
Chemical composi.on of life
All cells have a metabolism.
Cells take in nutrients and energy from the environment, co
Iden%ca%on of the Romanovs
Gill, P., et al. (1994) Iden%ca%on of the remains of the Romanov family by DNA analysis. Nature (6) 130-
What happened to the Romanovs?
They were held prisoner in Ekaterinburg before
Sex Determination and Sex-Linked
Give examples of chromosomal and environmental
sex determination systems in animals.
Set up Punnett squares and predict offspring
phenotypes for X-linked traits
Explain the consequences o
Prokaryotic Gene Regulation!
Gene expression is regulated at multiple levels!
Genes often arranged in operons!
Regulation may be positive or negative repressible or inducible!
DNA binding proteins modulate gene expression!
Definition of a gene: prokaryotic and eukaryotic
Transcription is part of the process of decoding
the genetic information stored in DNA
Steps in transcription: initiation, elongation and
Appreciate the fact that although the DNA
sequence dictates the information flow, cells
have to process these info in order to function
Learn various types of RNA processing
present in eukaryotic cells
Mechanisms of h
Altering the Genetic
Learn how mutations induce heritable changes in the
nucleotide sequence of DNA
Various types of mutations and their consequences
Various mutagenic agents and how they induce