Macro-ergonomics is a socio-technical system approach to work system design
(Hendrick and Kleiner 2001). It contains components at the larger level system
such as organizational climate, organizational culture, organizational structure,
i.e., not at the end of the development process.
Keywords: Maturity, security, software engineering, scenario-based design.
The last 30 years have seen an information revolution of incredible size.
Information technology has become ubiqui
The new packaging uses recycled paper which is less porous, less costly,
and environmentally friendly.
Person-hours to package one motor improved by 29%. This improvement
coincides with the companys upcoming goal of increasing productivity by
50%. Based o
the International Conference on Knowledge Capture. Banff, Canada. ACM
Press, New York, ACM Digital Library.
Boy, G.A. (2007). Human Centered Development of Perceived Complexity
Principles: Developed Criteria. Technical Report DGAC/EURISCO No. T
Nineteen (19) risk factors were identified within the duties of the Shipping
Department employees and were reported as baseline data. The most significant
risk factors are the weight of the motors, awkward postures required at various
automatic tape machine where it is closed, taped, and mechanically moved to the
out-feed conveyor. The packaged motor is weighed at the in-line scale location and
vacuum lifted onto an outgoing pallet. The outgoing pallet load i
and condition at the company. A theoretical model to guide the ergonomics
intervention process has been proposed and accepted to be applied at the
company. The intervention process is based on three fundamentals, that is to
say; Management Support, Knowle
Based on empirical evidence, security has been handled poorly by existing software
design methodologies. These methodologies have focused on product features and
functionality at the expense of secondary requirements such as security. In part, this
is hired to build a house, an architect is needed to build software. These architects
must be knowledgeable and skilled in human-centered design. They need to be able
to involve users on the design and development process with appropriate
Macro and Micro
in a Medium Sized
Shahnavaz, H. 1 , Naghib, A.2, Samadi. S. 2
Center for Ergonomics of Developing Countries (CEDC)
Kaf Holding (Darougar)
Ergonomics literature provides ample
The maturity of a product is defined by its capability to meet specified qualitative
criteria at a given step in the design process. In this paper, we will focus on product
maturity; a step beyond traditional process maturity as defined by Capability
internal workings. Do we need intelligent interfaces if the intelligence and
complexity should be internal to the system?
The interface is the visible part of the system, where people need stability,
predictability and a coherent system image that they ca
equipment/process requirements, work practices, and historical data. The Ohio
BWC CTD Risk Factor Assessment Form, along with other assessment tools was
used to quantify risk. Nineteen (19) CTD risk factors were identified. Proposed
SEW-Eurodrive, Inc. contacted the Ohio BWC for ergonomics assistance in their
Shipping Departments high-volume United Parcel Service (UPS) line. SEWEurodrive, Inc. is
recognized as a world leader in drive technology and a pioneer in
ergonomics hazard assessment and documentation process for this case study.
DESCRIPTION OF THE PROBLEM
The Shipping Department is responsible for packing and shipping all products in a
timely and efficient manner. The quality of the
provided recommendations for human-centered design of controls, displays, system
behavior, and system integration as well as design guidance for error management
(Boy, 2007). This study was conducted in the framework of the regulatory context
Concepts and precepts. Ashgate, UK
Howard, M., & Lipner, S., (2003). Inside the Windows security push, in: Security &
Privacy, IEEE, 1:1(57-61)
Krekel, Bryan, (2009). Capability of the Peoples Republic of China to Conduct
outcome of this project.
The new material flow/process can be fully integrated into the new
proposed paint line.
As an ergonomics consultant, it becomes apparent that a macroergonomics
approach is needed when making recommendations that focus o
lives but also the geopolitical shape of the world.
Given these rather sobering observations it is important to consider the
challenges developers have with the software development process in general and
security in particular.
THE SECURE DEVELOPMENT PRO
Layout/design needed to accommodate manual packaging
option; in case of equipment breakdown/failure;
Conveyor heights needed to accommodate user
anthropometrics and accommodate for drop-over distance
Conveyor slide Added to c
impractical approaches for developers. Within this whirlwind of progress, the
development team moves from project to project and technology to technology,
never quite finishing a project, and never perfecting their process as the tools and
methods can var
recommendations. From the beginning, the company defined the Shipping
Department as the customer. The focus of the interventions was to reduce the
quantified CTD risk factors and meet the criteria of the customer. The interventions
were part of an overall
Due to the process/equipment modifications, the implementation process for
installing the new equipment took six months to complete with a budget of
$336,000. The new layout is shown in Figure 2 below.
Figure 2. Post
engineering controls are needed.
Material and process flow for the original configuration is shown in Figure 1.
Material flow required significant re-handling of the product and long travel
Figure 1. Material flow chart
DESCRIPTION OF THE PROCE
its defined vision within a certain period of time. Thereafter, for achieving each
goal the company had to develop a plan and programme, identifying various
activities that were required and the resources needed for reaching each
individual goal. This was
involving responsibility, control and risk/life management. Therefore, provided
evaluation criteria cannot be used by just anyone. They must be used by a team of
human-centered designers who understand human adaptation. Unfortunately, in a
3. Customer centred company,
4. Better human resource management (recruiting, keeping and promotion of
5. Offering products at reasonable prices,
6. Homogeneous distribution of product within the country,
7. Ensuring high productivity,
one also needs to ensure that the program has no other undesirable side effects.
These errors can range from benign (a miscolored rendering of a pixel) to
catastrophic (a control system that incorrectly causes a car to accelerate).
to FW procedure. Managers will then be divided into new WTs to work with
the new goals. At the same time, one or two Expert Groups (EG) will be
formed from the most knowledgeable and experienced manager in the related
topics. The task of the EG is to fina
solutions as well as implementing the proposed solutions for achieving the
desired goals. Proposed solutions were later verified at Special Groups and
then approved by the Managing Director (MD) and some by the company board
of directors for application.