behavior is described. In principle, an electronic circuit can have one or
more ports, although in practice it is common to define only a few ports
to simplify matters. For example, an amplifier may b
the average power supplied by the source. chapter 2 2.1
TERMINOLOGY 2.2 KIRCHHOFFS LAWS 2.3 CIRCUIT
ANALYSIS: BASIC METHOD 2.4 INTUITIVE METHOD OF
CIRCUIT ANALYSIS: SERIES AND PARALLEL SIMPLIFICATION
increased refinement the S model, the SR model, the SCS model, and the
SU model. The book shows how significant amounts of insight into the
static and dynamic operation of digital circuits can be obta
fundamental physics if the constraints are violated. As an example, let us
work out the numbers for a microprocessor. In a microprocessor, the
conductors are typically encased in insulators such as si
itestR and substituting i = itest, we obtain the relationship between i and
v as v = V + iR. In other words, the i v relationship is given by i = v V
R . Substituting V = 5 volts and R = 4 , we get i
possible choice of closed paths is shown in Figure 2.47. If we assign the
polarity to a voltage in accordance with the first sign encountered, we
see that for Loop 1, v5 and v2 are negative, v1 is pos
variables convention the terminal variables for a resistor are related as v
= iR Given that R = 10 and i = 2 A, v = (2)10 = 20 V Next, suppose
that the two terminal element isa3V battery with the pola
currencies are not generally considered to be infinitely divisible.19 To
illustrate value discretization, consider the discretization of voltage as
shown in Figure 1.45. Here, we discretize voltage in
the sign when traversing the v1 branch. Finally, following Step 4, we
combine Equations 2.17 through 2.20 and solve jointly to determine all
four branch variables in Figure 2.25. This yields i1 = i2 =
5 W-hours. What are its equivalent ratings in mA-hours and joules?
Since a joule( J) is equivalent to a W-second, 5 W-hours is the same as 5
3600 = 18000 J. Since the battery has a voltage of 7.2 V,
resulted in the force relation in Equation 1.1, where the single relevant
property of the object is its mass. As illustrated in Figure 1.5, a lumped
element can be idealized to the point Terminal Term
be consistent, we now state that the resistor symbol introduced in Figure
1.19 represents an ideal linear resistor, which by definition obeys Ohms
law v = iR (1.15) for all values of voltage and curre
element boundaries so that there is no total time varying charge within
the element for all time. In other words, choose element boundaries such
that q t = 0 where q is the total charge within the ele
represent information and energy. As discussed earlier, one of the
motivations for building electronic circuits is to process information or
energy. Processing includes communication, storage, and com
current, because by definition the voltage is zero at that point. These
terms reappear in Chapter 3 from a very different perspective:
Thevenins Theorem. This section described how we model physical
e
and branch voltages in the network are zero. v R2 I R1 R3 R4 + FIGURE 2.95 p r o b l e m 2.15 Solve for the voltage across resistor R4
in the circuit in Figure 2.95 by assigning voltage and current va
expressed in terms of the node voltages, it is possible to take a more
intuitive approach and apply the simple node analysis described in
Section 3.3 without modification. In our example of Figure 3.2
element with the branch voltage v1 is a resistor with resistance 1 k, then
its branch current i1 defined according to associated variables is given
by i1 = v1 1 k = 1 mA. Thus far, in this section, we
controlled current source); (b) CCCS (current-controlled current source);
(c) VCVS (voltage-controlled voltage source); (d) CCVS (currentcontrolled voltage source). other signal within the circuit. Fi
then simultaneously solve the two sets of equations to complete the
analysis. The circuit has two elements. Following Step 2 we write the
two element laws for these elements as i1 = I, (2.17) v2 = Ri2
circuit. Another energy approach equates the total amount of energy in a
system at two different points in time (assuming that there are no
dissipative elements in the circuit). exercise 2.1 Find the
Practical Two-Terminal Elements CHAPTER ONE 23 FIGURE 1.16 A
silicon wafer. (Photograph Courtesy of Maxim Integrated Products.)
FIGURE 1.17 A chip photo of Intels 2-GHz Pentium IV processor
implemente
2 V + - v0 + - i0 vR + - iR 3 k 2.7 A Formulation Suitable for a
Computer Solution * CHAPTER TWO 107 Since the current source
current is in the same direction as iOUT, and in the opposite direction as
of other devices such as bipolar transistors to the exercises and
examples. Furthermore, to allow students to understand basic circuit
concepts without the trappings of specific devices, it introduces
expand, we determine the values of as many of the variables as we can
in terms of previously computed variables. Following this process, first,
the circuit in Figure 2.51c can be viewed as a voltage d
behavior of the device can be controlled by a voltage or current in some
other part of the circuit. In the examples cited here, only a very small
amount of power is needed to control large amounts of
not equal to the energy dissipated by the resistor, and so i = 3 mA is
incorrect. Notice that if we reverse the polarity of i, energy will be
conserved. Thus, i = 3 mA is the correct answer. 2.3.4 VOL
reconfigurable computing chip. He and his team were awarded a
Guinness world record in 2004 for LOUD, the largest microphone array
in the world, which can pinpoint, track and amplify individual voices
1.2 Sketch the v i characteristic of a battery rated at 10 V with an
internal resistance of 10 Ohms. problem 1.3 A battery rated at 7.2 V and
10000 J is connected across a lightbulb. Assume that the i
on Laplace transforms, a tool no longer in use by modern circuit
designers. I expect this book to establish a new trend in the way
introductory circuit analysis is taught to electrical and computer
en