Chapter 56 (p. 1146)
1. A hormone is a regulating chemical made at one place in the body that exerts influence at another
part. Hormones are manufactured in ductless glands and travel to their target organs or cells through the
bloodstream. Only certain o
Chapter 57 (p. 1172)
1. Macrophages kill cells by engulfing the ones presenting the appropriate antigen.
2. The complement system is composed of a series of about 20 freely-circulating proteins in the blood.
When they encounter an infected cell, they asse
Chapter 58 (p. 1194)
1. Homeostasis is the maintenance of constant conditions within the body. A negative feedback loop
prevents the departure of a controlled variable such as pH or temperature from its normal, or ideal,
value. Changes in the controlled v
Chapter 59 (p. 1214)
1. Oviparity is reproduction through laying eggs. In ovoviviparity, the eggs hatch inside the mother,
simulating a live birth. Truly viviparous animals are born alive.
2. Monotremes are oviparous. Marsupials have embryos born very und
Chapter 60 (p. 1238)
1. The three stages of fertilization are (1) penetration, when the sperm actually gets through the outer
protective layer around the egg; (2) activation, which prevents other sperm from entering the egg,
induces the egg to undergo its
Chapter 5 (p. 102)
1. (1) All organisms are composed of one or more cells. (2) Cells are the smallest living things. (3) Cells
arise only from the division of other pre-existing cells.
2. There is an optimal surface-to-volume ratio; a big cell does not ha
Chapter 4 (p. 74)
1. All living things have a cellular organization, respond to stimuli, have a metabolism, are able to
reproduce themselves, regulate internal processes, and maintain homeostasis. Multicellular organisms
also go through development to mat
Chapter 3 (p. 58)
1. Organic macromolecules are formed through dehydration synthesis. This involves splitting out water
molecules, which join individual saccharide, amino acid, fatty acid, or nucleotide units to form
carbohydrates, proteins, fats, and nuc
Chapter 2 (p. 34)
1. The atomic number = 7, atomic mass = 14, number of electrons = 7.
2. Isotopes are atoms of the same element with a different number of neutrons (and therefore a
different weight). Many isotopes are unstable and tend to decay at a cons
1. Living things are characterized by a high degree of orderliness, the ability to respond to stimuli, the
ability to grow and develop and reproduce, the passing on of genetic material, and possession of
control processes that regulate and coordinate life