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Chapter 1:
Basic Concepts and Definitions
Aside from the logical and mathematical sciences, there are three great branches of natural science which stand
apart by reason of the variety of far-reaching deductions, drawn from a small num
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ln aA = ln X A + constant
= ln X A + ln A
= ln X A A
(93)
where we have replaced the integration constant with the natural log of the activity coefficient. Since this
result must be valid over the entire range of composition within whi
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Chapter 9:
Equilibrium in Multicomponent Systems - Solution Behavior
Phase equilibrium in single component systems
Reactions involving gases
Reactions between gases and pure solids
Equilibrium in multicomponent systems (solution behavi
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Chapter 8 :
Reactions Between Gases and Pure Condensed Phases
Phase equilibrium in single-component systems
Reactions involving gases
Reactions between gases and pure solids
Equilibrium in multicomponent systems (solution behavior)
Bin
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Chapter 7:
Gas-Phase Reactions
Introduction: A Perspective
Before proceeding, it is perhaps worth a few moments to regain some perspective on where we
are, what we know, and where we are heading. The previous chapter has dealt with the
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Chapter 6:
Equations of State of Simple Substances
Introduction
Specifying the state or condition of a system involves specifying a small number of variables or
properties of the system. The properties familiar to us include pressure,
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Chapter 5:
Free Energy and Phase Equilibrium in Simple Systems
Introduction: A Perspective
Before proceeding, it is perhaps worth a few moments to gain some perspective on where we are,
what we know, and where we are heading.
We know t
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Chapter 4:
Free Energy, Equilibrium Criteria, and Thermodynamic Relations
Introduction
Thermodynamics deals with four energy-like properties. The internal energy U and the enthalpy
H are closely connected to the first and second laws.
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Chapter 3:
Entropy, The Second Law and The Carnot Cycle
It is impossible to construct a device that will operate in a cycle and produce no effect other than the raising of a weight
and the exchange of heat with a single reservoir.
.Kel
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Chapter 2:
Work, Heat, and the First Law
So, as science has progressed, it has been necessary to invent other forms of energy, and indeed an unfriendly critic
might claim, with some reason, that the law of conservation of energy is tru
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composition diagram affects and determines the form of the phase diagram. To do so, we will need to
consider some of the characteristics and consequences of free energy curves and free energy of mixing
curves, particularly with respect