segregated male from female students. these studios often offered both groups the
opportunity for lite drawing.
Beginning in 186.3. the Ecole housed a tripartite painting program that grew from
the establishment of three official ateliers of instruction,
Mifflin did hold a 1683 warrant and 1684 land patent, placing him among the "reputed"
Neither the amount paid nor the lot number or location were recorded
CDoc. 206: Reputed First Purchasers," in The Papers of William Penn, Vol. II, 1680
Frost, Quaker Family in Colonial America, 126, 129. Although works related to
devotion, theology, and the faith predominated, Friends stretched "useful reading" to include a
wide range of topics (Ibid., 209). For examples of Philadelphia merchants who
An .inward light" guided Quakers in their determination of who and when to
marry. To be wedded "in l lnity," consensual partners needed the approval of parents and
monthly meetings. While civic or religious marriage ceremonies conducted outside the
Hunting for food was an accepted Quaker pastime. Sec Frost, Quaker Family in
Colonial America, 209.
Mifflin graduated from College with a BA degree on Thursday May 15, 1760. He then
worked in the offices of the Philadelphia merchant W
The Boston Gazette. like society in general, erased female existence as
independent. individual subjects in pre-Revolutionary Massachusetts.
In a detailed
account of a fatal boating accident (21 June 1773 ), the newspaper included the following
list of ca
includes women married to farmers and merchants,
see Waciega, "A 'Man of Business',"
See Crane, "The World of Elizabeth Drinker," 15, 5; and Frost, Quaker Family
in Colonial America. 209.
So important was a wife for the smooth running of a house
various points of view which commanded the town of Reading and the circumjacent hills
and valleys. He farms about twelve hundred acres, and has a Scotch farmer who conducts
the business. One hundred of meadow-land he waters."
Visiting friends and ac
entry in John Adam's diary in mid-July describes his first meeting with Thomas Mifflin.
The brief record explains the Mifflin connection with Boston, comments positively on
Mifflin's personality, and ends with a suggestive hint that the two men talked abo
Vindication of the Principles and Doctrines of the People called Quakers (London: n. p.,
1678). 516; as quoted in Pointon. "Quakerism and Visual Culture," 404.
si The Philadelphia tax lists provide imprecise evidence. In addition, they recorded only
Visual Culture," 418, 4~4; for "wet Quakers" in Philadelphia, see Frost, Quaker Family in
Colonial America, 2 l 0.
~s An Apology for the Life of George Anne Bellamy, written by herself (London:
1785). in Friends Historical Society Journal l 7 ( 1920), 47;
John Singleton Copley, 1773, Mr. and Mrs. Thomas Miffiin (Sarah Morris), 60 Yi
x 48 inches, oil on bed ticking. Signed in upper right: "J. Singleton Copley. Pinx. 1773. Boston";
collection of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia; on
Mezzotints for his American Portraits: A Reappraisal Prompted by New Discoveries,"
Arts Magazine 55 (March 1981): 122; Prown, Copley in America, 8-13.
Colonial American artists like Copley used mczzotints as sources and references
for their paintings, a s
Paul Staiti, .Accounting for Copley," in John Singleton Copley in Americ~ 29; Prown,
Copley in Americ~ 9. For the developing importance of"decorum" in North American, see
Richard L. Bushman, The Refinement of America: Persons. Houses. Cities (New York:
Captain John Small to Copley, Headquarters, New York, 29 October 1769, in
lbid., 77. Perhaps Small refers to Copley's portrait of General Gage.
In addition to the work of Benjamin West and Joshua Reynolds, letters to and
from Copley mention the foll
The importance of appearance runs throughout Bushman's discussion of
gentility, but see especially Refinement of America, 97, 41-42, 63-73. Staiti also uses Bushman
in his discussion of Copley's paintings as markers for "gentility;" see "Character and
By communicating information about the distinctive qualities of each sitter in a
seemingly forthright way, Copley's hest portraits create an impression of personality and
presence. This in turn contributes to the illusion that we arc seeing the "truth"
Company in his hatt
then he is A hrave man
then he is noe Quaker . ( .ikewise
ye women haveinge
their spots on their faces
havinge their rings on their fingers .
. haveinge their cuffes dubell under and about, like unto a butcher with whit sleeves .
customs being long behind or mounting on the forehead."
Philadelphia Yearly Meeting,
"Discipline," ( 1704). 17~ quoted and discussed in Frost, Quaker Family in Colonial
Americ~ 194. For similar standards of dress in Britain. see "A Testimony Given forth b
"While walking along Front Street
George Mifflin, who took me to Joseph
Morris's to sec his brother the General. who had come in from the Falls, but we learned
that he had gone on the river to skate, in which exercise, by all accounts, he is ve
Wetherill. and Thomas Mifflin. When these men refused to repent, they were disowned, and
proclamations to that effect read in meetings and posted publicly in Philadelphia. See Christopher
Marshall Diaries, 30 December 1774, 2 January 1775, collection of t
Tomes, Nancy. "The Quaker Connection: Visiting Patterns among Women in the
Philadelphia Society of Friends, 1750-1800." In Friends and Neighbors: Group
Life in American's First Plural Society, ed. Michael Zuckerman, 174-195.
Philadelphia: Temple Universit
Salmon, Marylynn. Women and the Law of Property in Early America. Chapel Hill:
University of North Carolina, 1986.
Schoelwer, Susan Prendergast. "Form, Function, and Meaning in the Use of Fabric
Furnishings: A Philadelphia Case Study, 1700-1775." Winterth
MARY CASSAlT'S STUDY OF A
The previous chapter focused upon John Singleton Copley, an eighteenth-century
.American painter who struggled to achieve success as gentleman and artist among the merchants
artistic center. Indeed. in the years following the Civil War, the Academy presented
opportunities rare in the United States. Its galleries displayed original works and European
copies as well as plaster casts for students to study and copy. In addition,
chance to study in the studios of internationally renowned artists.8 As the center of the
western art world, Paris beckoned with both the Ecole des Beaux-Arts and the related
Frustrated with the limited opportunities available to her in Pennsylvani
dealers and auction houses marketed artwork year-round, and supplemented and
reinforced the exposure and acclaim artists achieved through the annual salons.
Work submitted to the official Salon was expected to fall within the style and
Art in F ranee
The Republic of France regarded art as an important factor in the disparate
development of its people as Frenchmen and Frenchwomen.
At their highest levels, the
fine arts of painting, sculpture, and architecture were serious, publicly-orien
Since internal competitions at the Academic Julian were open to all of its
students, women as well as men had the chance to build reputations as prize-winning
artists. In addition, the Academic not only held figure drawing classes in segregated
Penn. William. The Papers of William Penn. Ed. Richard S. Dunn and Mary Maples Dunn.
Vol. I, 1644-1679, ed. Richard S. Dunn and Mary Maples Dunn. Vol. II, 16801684, ed. Richard S. Dunn and Mary Maples Dunn. Vol. Ill, 1685-1700, ed.
Marianne S. Wokeck, Joy