What do psychologists do?
Provide health or mental health services psychological practice
Counseling psychologist help people deal with everyday life
School psychologist school performance; student, parent & teacher
Clinical psychologist diagnose, trea
2. Clinical psychologist
3. Research psychologist
A. Trained in a therapeutic approach started by Freud
B. Has a Ph.D., Psy.D. Ed.D. and does research on or
psychotherapy for mental health problems
C. May have a
1. Its common knowledge that the more you study, the
higher you grade will be. What kind of correlation is
2. Which of the following would indicate the strongest
relationship between variab
Coefficient of correlation range in value from -1.00 to +1.00
Use height and weight as variables
List tallest to shortest and list heaviest to lightest
If list the same then +1.00 correlation
+.80 = strong
-.80 = strong but negative correla
Clinical psychologists are the largest subfield.
Clinical psychologists help those who have difficulty
functioning due to a crisis.
Clients often have the goal to return to a previous level of
functioning prior to the trauma even
Ethics of Psychological Research
When working with people:
1. Rights and well-being of participants must be
weighed against the studys value to science.
2. Participants must be allowed to make an informed
decision about participation.
3. Deception must b
1. Which of the following pairs represents the two psychological perspectives that were part of the
historical beginning of psychology?
a) Humanism and behaviorism
b) Behaviorism and psychodynamics
c) Psychodynamics and humanism
d) Cognitive psycholo
Quiz would have been most likely to agree with
Name which of the following early psychologists
the statement, The study of the mind should focus on how it allows us to adapt to our
a) Wilhelm Wundt
b) William James
c) John Watson
4 criteria for Critical Thinking
1. There are very few truths that do not need to be subjected to testing.
2. All evidence is not equal in quality.
3. Just because someone is considered to be an authority or to have
expertise does not make everything that
Sociocultural Perspective Perspective that focuses on the relationship
between social behavior and culture
(Social and Cultural Psychology)
Biopsychological Perspective - Attributes human and animal behavior
to biological events occu
Research or experimental psychologists study the behaviors of humans
and animals. *
Research psychologists formulate hypotheses and collect data to test their
Experimental research is conducted on topics that include mo
1. In the definition of psychology, behavior means:
a) Internal, covert processes
b) Mental processes
c) Outward or overt actions and reactions
2. Experimental psychologists, whose design experiments to determine the
causes of behavior, would be most
What is Learned?
Classical and Instrumental
Contingent on Behavior
Contingent on Behavior
Behavior Elicited by US Behavior Emitted by
Which rule of science was violated in each of these cases?
For years, writer Norman Cousins told how he had cured himself of a rare, life
threatening disease through a combination of humor and vitamins. In a best
selling book, he recommended
Descriptive of Studies
Surveys questionnaires and interviews that gather information based
on asking people about experiences, attitudes or opinions
Gallup poll national opinion poll
Call in radio show surveys
Representative sample randomly selected sam
1. Perceiving the Question
You notice something interesting happening and would like an explanation.
You wonder if violent cartoons create aggressive behavior in children.
2. Form a Hypothesis
A tentative explanation of a phenomenon b
The history of Psychology
E.B. Titchener (1867 1927)
Student of Wilhelm Wundt
Analyze sensations, images and feelings into basic
William James (1842 1910)
Function or purpose of behav
4. In an experiment to test the effects of alcohol on memory. The
experimenter gives vodka mixed in orange juice to tone group of
subjects and orange juice with no vodka to the other group. She
then measures the memory skills of both groups by means
4. A famous newscaster advertises a new magnetic mattress for
controlling pain. If Nathanial decides to order the mattress
because he believes that such a well-known personality should
know if it works or not. He has made a error in which of the
Observational observe, measure & record behavior
careful not to intrude
Naturalistic people or animals in natural environment
schools, on the street, offices
Jane Goodall; Diane Fosse
Observer Effect tendency for people and
The history of Psychology
The whole is greater than the sum of the parts
Gestalt = an organized whole or configuration
People seek our patterns to make sense of things
Focus on perceptions and se
What is Psychology?
The scientific study of behavior and mental
Behavior = outward or avert actions and reactions
Talking, facial expressions and movement
Mental Process = internal, covert activity
Gathering the facts
Descriptive method describe / predict behavior not explain
Representative sample group that matches larger
population wanting to study
Small # representative better than large # not representative
Must have at least 20
Experimenter Effects tendency of the experimenters expectations for
a study to unintentionally influence the results
of the study.
Single Blind Subjects do not know if in control or experimental group.
Double Blind Neither subje
The History of Psychology
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)
Theory of personality - a type of psychotherapy that emphasizes
unconscious or repressed motives and conflicts.
Depression, anxiety & obsession had mental not physical cause