The History of Psychology
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)
Theory of personality - a type of psychotherapy that emphasizes
unconscious or repressed motives and conflicts.
Depression, anxiety & obsession had mental not physical cause
What do Psychologist do?
Teach and do research in colleges and universities
Basic psychology pure research; knowledge for sake of knowledge
How does peer pressure influence attitudes and behavior
Applied psychology direct practical significance; appl
Good source of hypothesis
Vital information missing
Hard to interpret
Study unusual cases that would
be unethical or impractical to
study any other way.
Memories may be selective or
1. Perceiving the Question
You notice something interesting happening and would like an explanation.
You wonder if violent cartoons create aggressive behavior in children.
2. Form a Hypothesis
A tentative explanation of a phenomenon b
Descriptive of Studies
Surveys questionnaires and interviews that gather information based
on asking people about experiences, attitudes or opinions
Gallup poll national opinion poll
Call in radio show surveys
Representative sample randomly selected sam
Which rule of science was violated in each of these cases?
For years, writer Norman Cousins told how he had cured himself of a rare, life
threatening disease through a combination of humor and vitamins. In a best
selling book, he recommended
What do psychologists do?
Provide health or mental health services psychological practice
Counseling psychologist help people deal with everyday life
School psychologist school performance; student, parent & teacher
Clinical psychologist diagnose, trea
2. Clinical psychologist
3. Research psychologist
A. Trained in a therapeutic approach started by Freud
B. Has a Ph.D., Psy.D. Ed.D. and does research on or
psychotherapy for mental health problems
C. May have a
1. Its common knowledge that the more you study, the
higher you grade will be. What kind of correlation is
2. Which of the following would indicate the strongest
relationship between variab
Experimenter Effects tendency of the experimenters expectations for
a study to unintentionally influence the results
of the study.
Single Blind Subjects do not know if in control or experimental group.
Double Blind Neither subje
Gathering the facts
Descriptive method describe / predict behavior not explain
Representative sample group that matches larger
population wanting to study
Small # representative better than large # not representative
Must have at least 20
The history of Psychology
E.B. Titchener (1867 1927)
Student of Wilhelm Wundt
Analyze sensations, images and feelings into basic
William James (1842 1910)
Function or purpose of behav
4. In an experiment to test the effects of alcohol on memory. The
experimenter gives vodka mixed in orange juice to tone group of
subjects and orange juice with no vodka to the other group. She
then measures the memory skills of both groups by means
4. A famous newscaster advertises a new magnetic mattress for
controlling pain. If Nathanial decides to order the mattress
because he believes that such a well-known personality should
know if it works or not. He has made a error in which of the
Observational observe, measure & record behavior
careful not to intrude
Naturalistic people or animals in natural environment
schools, on the street, offices
Jane Goodall; Diane Fosse
Observer Effect tendency for people and
The history of Psychology
The whole is greater than the sum of the parts
Gestalt = an organized whole or configuration
People seek our patterns to make sense of things
Focus on perceptions and se
What is Psychology?
The scientific study of behavior and mental
Behavior = outward or avert actions and reactions
Talking, facial expressions and movement
Mental Process = internal, covert activity
Coefficient of correlation range in value from -1.00 to +1.00
Use height and weight as variables
List tallest to shortest and list heaviest to lightest
If list the same then +1.00 correlation
+.80 = strong
-.80 = strong but negative correla
Clinical psychologists are the largest subfield.
Clinical psychologists help those who have difficulty
functioning due to a crisis.
Clients often have the goal to return to a previous level of
functioning prior to the trauma even
Ethics of Psychological Research
When working with people:
1. Rights and well-being of participants must be
weighed against the studys value to science.
2. Participants must be allowed to make an informed
decision about participation.
3. Deception must b
Psychology Now: Modern Perspectives
Psychodynamic Perspective Modern version, focused on the development of a sense of
self and the discovery of other motivations behind a persons behavior than sexual
B. F Skinner
Psychiatrist medical doctor; prescribe medications; not always up on psych
Psychoanalyst practices psychoanalysis
specialized training (M.D., Ph.D., Psy. D., Ed.)
Psychologist no medical training but doctorate (Ph. D. or Psy. D
1. In the scientific method, the first step is
a) Reporting your results
b) Perceiving a question
c) Drawing conclusions
d) Testing the hypothesis
2. In a naturalistic observation, the phenomenon where the behavior of the
subjects being observed chan
Anxiety is a common problem. Which possible explanation of anxiety fits these
1) Anxious people often think about the future in distorted ways
2) Anxiety is due to forbidden unconscious desires
3) Anxiety symptoms often bring hid
Identify each of the following as a positive or negative correlation.
1) The higher a male monkeys level of the hormone testosterone,
the more aggressive he is likely to be.
2) The older people are the less frequently the tend to have sexua
1. Which of the following is NOT one of the common ethical rules?
a) Participants have to give informed consent
b) Deception cannot be used in any studies with human being
c) The rights and well-being of the participants must come first
d) Data must
University of California, Berkeley
Department of Psychology
Christopher Gade, PhD
Tolman Hall, Room 3412
Office Hours: Mondays 2:30 to 5:30
Online Office Hour: By Appoin