Chapter 15: Accelerators
Why do we need them?
First, we need to produce ions
Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source at LBNL
Krane
Used in dt neutron generators
Electric charge goes to
outside of conductor
Krane
Krane
Positively charged ions produced insi

Krane
Krane
Range of 1 MeV
electron in Al ?
Krane
Krane
Range of 5 MeV
a in Al?
Krane
Krane
Krane
Krane
+100v
+200v
+300v
+400v
+500v
+600v
+700v
Krane
Krane
Plastic scintillation detectors at LLNL
Plastic scintillator detection
_ Background
Counts
of 6.1

Chapter 19
Nuclear Astrophysics
Stars
Visible EM Spectrum
What is the universe made of ?
Hydrogen = 75%, by mass
Helium = 23 %
Everything Else = 2%
Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram
Our Sun
Mass = 2 x 1033 grams
Luminosity = 4 x 1033 ergs/second
Age = 4.5 x

Attempts at controlled fusion
magnetic plasma confinement
Krane
Tokamak
Tokamak facility at Princeton
Krane
Laser driven fusion
Krane
National Ignition Facility at LLNL
NIF Target
Chamber
192 laser beams used
to implode dt targets
Fusion power plant desig

Ip = 0+ state is not bound
1
Why arent nn or pp bound ?
The deuteron shows us that the spin dependent part of the
nucleon-nucleon interaction favors Jp = 1+ state.
This requires the intrinsic spins of the two nucleons to be aligned.
Pauli exclusion princi

Mid Term Exam #1
Wednesday October 2
In class, 50 minutes long
Will cover everything weve discussed up through
and including the material covered in Chapter 4 of
Krane.
Closed book. You are allowed to bring one page of
notes (both sides).
Calculators OK,

2nd Homework Assignment
Due Monday September 16
Krane: Chapter 6
Problems 1, 2, 3, 5, 11, 17, 21
Isotopes Project Sites and Links
http:/ie.lbl.gov/toi.html
Nuclear Data Dissemination
Home Page
Nuclear Astrophysics Data Home
Page
Isotope Explorer 2.2
(Wind

Finishing up Chapter 3
1
2
Krane
3
Diffraction pattern allows us to determine size of object
Electron scattering
E = 420 MeV ~ pc
= h/p = hc/pc = 2phc/E ~ 3 fm
qmin = sin-1 (1.22/d) = 45o for 16O
Krane
r (16O) = 2.6 fm
4
Nuclear charge distributions dete

En =
Vo
x=-a/2
x=+a/2
Notice:
Wave function
is not zero
everywhere
outside of well
Krane
Visible EM Spectrum
Lilley
1/2
Notice:
Wave function is not
zero everywhere
outside of well
Krane

Schrodingers Cat
1
Paradox
2
3
4
Barrier penetration in alpha decay
Krane
5
6
7
8
Neutrons and protons are fermions and have
intrinsic angular momentum (spin) of h
9
2j + 1 values of mj
10
11
12
13
14
Parity
r
-r
x
-x, y
-y, z
-z
What happens to wave func

Nuclear binding energy curve
Fission
Fusion
Nuclear binding energy curve
Fusion
Fission
Binding energies
Atomic ~ eV
Nuclear ~ MeV
BA/m = 10-9
BN/m = 10-3
M(Z,A) = Z m(1H) + N (mn) B(Z,A)/c2
where m(1H) = mass of neutral hydrogen atom
and mn = mass of neu

Homework #3
Due September 23
Krane: Chapter 2
- Problems 5, 6, 8(a), 14, 15
and from your answer to 8(a), calculate
the minimum kinetic energy of a billiard
ball of mass 0.14 kg confined on a table
3.7 meters by 1.9 meters in size.
Correction to Kranes Ta

Extra Credit Problem
Go to http:/ie.lbl.gov/radioactivedecay
Pick one isotope (other than Cs-137) and use the
posted spectra to and Help guide there to
determine the half life
Compare your result to the accepted value
Quantum Mechanics
Krane: Chapter 2
Th

Relationship between
nuclear binding energy (B) and
mass defect ()
B(Z,A) = [Zm(1H) +Nmn M(Z,A)]c2
= [M(Z,A) A]c2
all masses in atomic mass units (u)
B + = [Zm(1H) +Nmn A]c2
= [Z(1.007825) + N(1.008665) Z N]c2
= [Z(0.007825) + N(0.008665)]c2
Nuclear radi

Rutherford:
dN/dt = -N
N(t) = N0e-t
Usual assumption:
does not depend on t, or
environmental factors
Is the exponential decay law valid ?
=
60Co
Verified exponential decay law
valid down to 10-10- 10-6 t1/2
56Mn
t1/2 = 2.5785 hours
Verified exponential d

The
The Four Elements
Earth
Air
Fire
Water
Early
Early Alchemist
I saw in a dream a table
where all the elements
fell into place as required.
Awakening, I immediately
wrote it down on a piece
of paper. Only in one place
did a correction later appear
neces

Elemental abundances measured
in Earths crust
Visible EM Spectrum
Stars
What is the universe made of ?
Hydrogen = 75%, by mass
Helium = 23 %
Everything Else = 2%
Solar System abundances
Mass spectrometer
In region of crossed electric and magnetic field

Mid Term Exam #1
Wednesday October 2
In class, 50 minutes long
Will cover everything weve discussed in Chapters
1, 2, 3, 4, and 6 of Krane.
Closed book. You are allowed to bring one page of
notes (both sides).
Calculators OK, but no computers allowed.
Blu

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Q. Where does the 4He found on Earth come from ?
A. Radioactive decay of U, Th and their daughters
232Th:
t1/2 = 1.4 x 1010 years
235U:
t1/2 = 7.0 x 108 years
238U:
t1/2 = 4.5 x 109 years
8
9
10
Sources of 222Rn:
Radium-Painted Watch Dials
1

Homework #5
Due Monday October 7
Krane: Chapter 5
Problems: 1, 5, 9, 13, 14, 15
1
Krane
2
Shortcomings of extreme independent particle shell model
i.e. attribute angular momentum of nucleus to that of the last unpaired particle
Krane
3
4
5
Krane
6
7
8
Kra

Homework Due
Wednesday November 27
Krane Chapter 14:
Problems 1, 2, 3, 7, 8
Nuclear Forensics
The mass distribution of fission products depends on
the fissile material and incident neutron energy
Mass distributions for 235U and
239Pu fission
(from Bedding

1
2
5
1.5x1020
1.5x1020
1013
3
4
Breeder reactor design
Krane
5
Production of medically useful radioisotopes from fission
Fission Product Yields per 100 Fissions for
235U Thermal Neutron Induced Fission Decay,
T.R. England and B.F. Rider, LA-UR-94-3106, E

Lecture 21
Beta Decay, Part III
Friday
October 18, 2013
Changes in Nuclear Angular Momentum
from Beta Decay
With A = 100, r 5.5 fm
p r 0.039 (Not an integer!)
Converts n p without changing spin
Converts n p with possible spin flip
Forbidden is a bit
of a

Homework
Due Wednesday Nov. 20
Krane: Chapter 13
Problems: 1, 6, 7, 11, 16, 18
1
2
Enrico Fermi
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1938 was awarded to
Enrico Fermi "for his demonstrations of the
existence of new radioactive elements produced by
neutron irradiatio

Neutron Activation Analysis
(Z,A) + n (Z,A+1) + g (prompt)
b(Z, A+1)
g (delayed)
(Z+1, A+1)
1
Neutron activation analysis of pottery
NAA Elemental Analysis Sensitivities
Krane
3
What killed the dinosaurs ?
Louis and Walter
Alvarez in Italy
Joe Kirschvink