CHIRALITY THE HANDEDNESS of MOLECULES
Isomers are molecules that have the same formula but different structures. We have seen two
different types of isomers:
Constitutional isomers (structural isomers)
have the same connectivity of atoms but
ETHERS are compounds with structure ROR. Generally, this is an unreactive functional group.
Ethers are more polar than hydrocarbons but less polar than alcohols. Their boiling points are
much lower than isomeric alcohols and are comparable to hydrocarbons
NMR nuclear magnetic resonance is the most informative kind of spectroscopy for organic
chemistry. Its also the most complex and difficult to understand. MRI (magnetic resonance
imaging) is NMR applied as a biological imaging technique.
NMR is based on th
How mass spectrometry works
1. A very small sample of a compound is injected into the mass spectrometer
2. The sample is heated and vaporized
3. An electron beam ionizes the sample a molecule that is hit by an electron loses an electron
ORGANOMETALLIC COMPOUNDS and CARBENES
Organometallic compounds contain a carbon-metal covalent bond. The metal can be Mg, Li, Cu,
Zn, etc. Carbon-metal bonds are polar and carbon is the more electronegative element. The
carbon therefore has considerable c
ORGANIC CHEMISTRY the chemistry of compounds formed by covalent bonding in which CARBON
is the most important element.
Why is carbon so important? Basically, it is more versatile in its bonding than any other element.
Carbon forms four bonds these can be
NUCLEOPHILIC SUBSTITUTION and -ELIMINATION - Reactions of alkyl halides (Chapter 9)
Nucleophilic substitution and -elimination are two somewhat similar reactions. Both reactions
have an electron-rich nucleophile, :Nu (which may or may not have a negative
ALKYNES (Chapter 7)
Alkynes are hydrocarbons with a -CC- triple bond. The simplest and by far the most important
is H-CC-H, called ethyne or acetylene.
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES: like other hydrocarbons
NAMING of alkynes: names end in yne, otherwi
ALKANES and CYCLOALKANES (Chapter 2)
ALKANES are hydrocarbons with no double or triple bonds therefore, are saturated with
regard to hydrogen. Alkanes are in many respects the simplest of organic compounds: no pi
bonds, no functional groups. They are nonp
CHAPTER 6 - REACTIONS of ALKENES and the MECHANISMS of REACTIONS
Alkenes are much more
reactive than alkanes. They
undergo mostly addition
reactions, in which atoms
add to both carbons of the
-C=C- bond and the product
has only single bonds. We
want to lo
HALOALKANES (Alkyl halides) are compounds R-F, R-Cl, R-Br and R-I. R must be an sp3
(If halogen is on a doubly bonded C of an alkene, the compound is an alkenyl halide or a haloalkene; if
halogen is directly bonded to a benzene ring, th
UNSATURATED HYDROCARBONS contain one or more C=C- or -CC- bonds. They are
therefore unsaturated with hydrogen and react with H2 gas (in the presence of a transition
metal catalyst such as Pt) to add an H atom to each C and become saturated (pgs 253-257).
Chapter 10 is about the chemistry of alcohols (ROH) and, in the last section, thiols (RSH).
Alcohols are extremely important. For example, all carbohydrates are alcohols with many OH
groups. Alcohols undergo many different reactions and the OH gr
ACIDS and BASES CHAPTER 4
We will consider three definitions of acids and bases, each more general than the one before. The
oldest definitions are the Arrhenius definitions (1884):
An acid is a substance that, when added to water, produces
Chapters 12-14 are about spectroscopic methods that are used in organic chemistry.
Chapter 12 Infrared Spectroscopy (IR)
Chapter 13 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (NMR)
Chapter 14 Mass Spectroscopy (mass spec)
Spectroscopy is the study of the abs