EE 119 Homework 11
Professor: Jeff Bokor TA: Xi Luo
1. General diffraction questions (a) How many wavelengths wide must a single slit be if the first Fraunhofer diffraction minimum occurs at an angular distance of 30 degrees from the optic axis? (b) Lycop
EE119 Discussion Section 4
(02/22/10) Professor: Jeff Bokor TA: Xi Luo
1. Resolution limit of optical systems Rayleighs criterion
[Hecht 10.28] The Mount Palomar telescope has an objective mirror with a 508-cm diameter. (a) Determine its angular limit of
EE119 Discussion Section 1
(01/25/10) Professor: Jeff Bokor Example Problems 1. Light as Wave Hecht 3.1 consider the plane electromagnetic wave (in SI units) given by the expression Ex = 0, Ey = 2cos[2 1014(t x/c) + /2], and Ez = 0. What are the (a) frequ
EE119 Discussion Section 2
(02/01/10) Professor: Jeff Bokor TA: Xi Luo
1. Birefringence optical axis, ordinary ray, extraordinary ray; wave plates Example: a) A quarter-wave plate retards one direction of polarization of light by a phase of /4 relative to
EE119 Discussion Section 3
(02/08/10) Professor: Jeff Bokor 1. More on Lenses (1) Uncle QK finds a lens on his way to the lab and wants to determine the focal length of the lens. He constructs an optical axis between a fixed object and a fixed screen, at
EE119 Discussion Section 5
(03/01/10) Professor: Jeff Bokor TA: Xi Luo 1. Telescope An objective of an astronomical telescope has a diameter of 12.5cm and focal length of 85.5cm. When it is used with an eyepiece having a focal length of 2.5cm and a diamet
EE119 Discussion Section 7
(03/15/10) Professor: Jeff Bokor TA: Xi Luo I. Photomultiplier Tube Example: A PMT with 8 dynodes and = 5 is used to detect a laser beam at = 630nm . The quantum efficiency of the PMT at this wavelength is ~50%. Assume the laser
EE119 Discussion Section 9
(04/05/10) Professor: Jeff Bokor TA: Xi Luo 1. Photodiode review on p-n junction, depletion region, bias; charge carrier transport diffusion and drift; pn photodiode vs. pin photodiode For a particular PIN photodiode, a pulse of
EE119 Discussion Section 10
(04/12/10) Professor: Jeff Bokor TA: Xi Luo 1. Population inversion; Pumping Three level VS. four level laser system 2. Optical resonator - longitudinal modes; mode spacing Two mirrors in a He-Ne laser are spaced apart by 25.0
EE 119 Homework 10
Professor: Jeff Bokor TA: Xi Luo Due Tuesday, April 27th 2010 (Please submit your answers in EE119 homework box located in 240 Cory Hall) 1. Diode Lasers Consider a InGaAsP-InP laser diode which has an optical cavity of length 250 micro
EE 119 Homework 9
Professor: Jeff Bokor TA: Xi Luo Due Tuesday, April 20th 2010 (Please submit your answers in EE119 homework box located in 240 Cory Hall) 1. A laser consists of two nearly perfectly reflecting mirrors, M, and a gain medium, G, of bandwid
EE 119
Homework 8
Professor: Jeff Bokor TA: Xi Luo Due Tuesday, April 13th 2010 (Please submit your answers in EE119 homework box located in 240 Cory Hall) 1. Solar Cell Tired of paying outrageous energy bills and afraid of future rolling blackouts, Uncle
EE 119 Homework 7
Professor: Jeff Bokor TA: Xi Luo Due Tuesday, March 30th 2010 (Please submit your answers in EE119 homework box located in 240 Cory Hall) 1. Photomultiplier tube a) Assume constant quantum efficiency and constant power. Plot the variatio
EE 119 Homework 6
Professor: Jeff Bokor TA: Xi Luo Due Tuesday, March 9th 2010 (Please submit your answers in EE119 homework box located in 240 Cory Hall) 1. Captain James Cook is sailing through the south pacific on a mission from the Royal society to ob
EE 119 Homework 5
Professor: Jeff Bokor TA: Xi Luo Due Tuesday, March 2nd 2010 (Please submit your answers in EE119 homework box located in 240 Cory Hall) 1. After conquering Sartaul (East Turkestan, todays northwestern China and central Asia), Genghis Kh
EE 119 Homework 4
Professor: Jeff Bokor TA: Xi Luo Due Tuesday, Feb 23rd 2010 (Please submit your answers in EE119 homework box located in 240 Cory Hall) 1. [Hecht 6.28] Figure P.6.28 shows the image irradiance distributions arising when a monochromatic p
EE 119
Homework 3
Professor: Jeff Bokor TA: Xi Luo Due Tuesday, Feb 16th 2010 (Please submit your answers in EE119 homework box located in 240 Cory Hall) 1. You will explore some of the differences between real and paraxial rays in this problem. For each
EE 119
Homework 2
Professor: Jeff Bokor TA: Xi Luo Due Tuesday, Feb 9th 2010 (Please submit your answers in EE119 homework box located in 240 Cory Hall) 1. (a) In class, the angle of deviation () has been formulated for a prism with an apex angle (). Plot
EE 119
Homework 1
Professor: Jeff Bokor TA: Xi Luo Due Tuesday, Feb 2nd 2010 (Please submit your answers in EE119 homework box located in 240 Cory Hall)
1.
(a) Pat is a happy dolphin who grew up in Sea World. Today Uncle Lee, Pats trainer, is going to tea
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Lecture 1
Lecture 1 Basic Properties of Light
Light is described using 3 pictures - seemingly contradictory! Waves - Rays - Photons Waves [Reading Assignment: Hecht, Chapter 2 (most of this should be review), 3.2, 3.3, 3.4.4, 3.5, 3.6] A propagating distu
Lecture 2
Lecture 2
Reflection and Refraction, Snells Law [Reading assignment: Hecht 4.3, 4.4, 4.7] An important element of optics is the interface between 2 materials with different index of refraction
1 1 reflected ray
n1 n2 2 n 1 sin 1 = n 2 sin 2 n2 s
Lecture 14
Lecture 14
Direct vs. indirect gap Some semiconductors are good absorbers, and absorb all above-bandgap light in a layer of a few microns thick. These are called direct-bandgap semiconductors. In others, called indirect-gap semiconductors, whic
Lecture 15
Lecture 15
Charge coupled device (CCD) The basic CCD is composed of a linear array of MOS capacitors. It functions as an analog memory and shift register. The operation is indicated in the diagram below: L1 L2 L3 3 phase CCD clocking t1 t2 t3
I
Lecture 16
Lecture 16
[reading assignment: Hecht, 13.1] Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation Basic laser architecture:
The key element in any laser is the gain medium (light amplification) Ii
gain medium L
Io
I o = e gL I i
g : gain co
Lecture 17
Lecture 17
Gaussian beams Plane waves: E x y z = E 0 e i kz t . Another solution to Maxwells equations:
E x y z = E 0 x y z e i kz t transverse beam profile varies slowly with z
Paraxial approximation: variation with z is slow compared to x y
Lecture 18
Lecture 18
Various laser types Laser pumping processes: Electrons: Gas discharge or electron beam Optical: a) incoherent flashlamp, arc lamp, solar b) coherent another laser Electrical current: Semiconductor diode laser Gas discharge laser cons
Lecture 19
Lecture 19 SCALAR DIFFRACTION THEORY
[Reading assignment: Hect 10.2.4-10.2.6,10.2.8, 11.3.3] Scalar Electromagnetic theory:
u P t = Re U P e
j t
monochromatic wave
P : position t : time
= 2 : optical frequency
u(P, t) represents the E or H fie
Lecture 20
Lecture 20
DIFFRACTION THEORY OF A LENS We have previously seen that light passing through a lens experiences a phase delay given by:
+ - 1- 1 = exp jk n 1 - - - 2 R R 1 2
2 2
(neglecting the constant phase)
The focal length, f is given by:
1
Lecture 21
Lecture 21
Twyman-Green interferometer
M1
reference mirror
laser imaging lens test surface
camera If the test surface is perfect, then the path length is identical across the beam, and the intensity is uniform on the camera. M 1 can be translat