Guided Reading - Comprehensive V
1) A special type of angular motion is
2) A joint that permits free movement is called
a) a synovial joint.
b) a hinge joint.
c) an amphiarthrosis.
Guided Reading - Comprehensive II
1) The anatomical specialty that examines changes in form from conception to maturity is
a) medical anatomy.
b) developmental anatomy.
c) comparative anatomy.
d) surgical anatomy.
e) systemic anatomy.
2) Gross anatomical
Chapters 12-14 are about spectroscopic methods that are used in organic chemistry.
Chapter 12 Infrared Spectroscopy (IR)
Chapter 13 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (NMR)
Chapter 14 Mass Spectroscopy (mass spec)
Spectroscopy is the study of the abs
ETHERS are compounds with structure ROR. Generally, this is an unreactive functional group.
Ethers are more polar than hydrocarbons but less polar than alcohols. Their boiling points are
much lower than isomeric alcohols and are comparable to hydrocarbons
NMR nuclear magnetic resonance is the most informative kind of spectroscopy for organic
chemistry. Its also the most complex and difficult to understand. MRI (magnetic resonance
imaging) is NMR applied as a biological imaging technique.
NMR is based on th
How mass spectrometry works
1. A very small sample of a compound is injected into the mass spectrometer
2. The sample is heated and vaporized
3. An electron beam ionizes the sample a molecule that is hit by an electron loses an electron
ORGANOMETALLIC COMPOUNDS and CARBENES
Organometallic compounds contain a carbon-metal covalent bond. The metal can be Mg, Li, Cu,
Zn, etc. Carbon-metal bonds are polar and carbon is the more electronegative element. The
carbon therefore has considerable c
ORGANIC CHEMISTRY the chemistry of compounds formed by covalent bonding in which CARBON
is the most important element.
Why is carbon so important? Basically, it is more versatile in its bonding than any other element.
Carbon forms four bonds these can be
NUCLEOPHILIC SUBSTITUTION and -ELIMINATION - Reactions of alkyl halides (Chapter 9)
Nucleophilic substitution and -elimination are two somewhat similar reactions. Both reactions
have an electron-rich nucleophile, :Nu (which may or may not have a negative
ALKYNES (Chapter 7)
Alkynes are hydrocarbons with a -CC- triple bond. The simplest and by far the most important
is H-CC-H, called ethyne or acetylene.
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES: like other hydrocarbons
NAMING of alkynes: names end in yne, otherwi
ALKANES and CYCLOALKANES (Chapter 2)
ALKANES are hydrocarbons with no double or triple bonds therefore, are saturated with
regard to hydrogen. Alkanes are in many respects the simplest of organic compounds: no pi
bonds, no functional groups. They are nonp
CHAPTER 6 - REACTIONS of ALKENES and the MECHANISMS of REACTIONS
Alkenes are much more
reactive than alkanes. They
undergo mostly addition
reactions, in which atoms
add to both carbons of the
-C=C- bond and the product
has only single bonds. We
want to lo
HALOALKANES (Alkyl halides) are compounds R-F, R-Cl, R-Br and R-I. R must be an sp3
(If halogen is on a doubly bonded C of an alkene, the compound is an alkenyl halide or a haloalkene; if
halogen is directly bonded to a benzene ring, th
UNSATURATED HYDROCARBONS contain one or more C=C- or -CC- bonds. They are
therefore unsaturated with hydrogen and react with H2 gas (in the presence of a transition
metal catalyst such as Pt) to add an H atom to each C and become saturated (pgs 253-257).
Chapter 10 is about the chemistry of alcohols (ROH) and, in the last section, thiols (RSH).
Alcohols are extremely important. For example, all carbohydrates are alcohols with many OH
groups. Alcohols undergo many different reactions and the OH gr
ACIDS and BASES CHAPTER 4
We will consider three definitions of acids and bases, each more general than the one before. The
oldest definitions are the Arrhenius definitions (1884):
An acid is a substance that, when added to water, produces
CHIRALITY THE HANDEDNESS of MOLECULES
Isomers are molecules that have the same formula but different structures. We have seen two
different types of isomers:
Constitutional isomers (structural isomers)
have the same connectivity of atoms but
General and Special Senses
Plasmalemma = the cell/plasma membrane
o Separates the cytoplasm from extracellular fluid
o Functions as a receptor for the cell because it responds to changes in the
o Differ in their sens
The integumentary system, or integument, is composed of skin and its derivatives: hair,
nails, sweat glands, oil glands, and mammary glands
II. Integumentary Structure and Function
Contains all four tissue types:
The nervous system controls and adjusts the activities of other systems
Includes all of the neural tissue in the body
Two anatomical subdivisions:
o Central Nervous System (CNS)
Consists of the brain and spinal cord
Includes epithelia and glands (secretory structures derived from epithelia)
Epithelium: a sheet of cells that covers an exposed body surface or lines an internal cavity or
Make up body coverings and linings
The Endocrine System
I. Overview of the Endocrine System
The nervous system and the endocrine system work together to monitor the bodys
o The nervous system produces short-term, specific responses to stimuli
o The endocrine system produces lon
The Muscular System
Muscle tissue is one of four primary tissue types
o Consists of muscle fiberselongate cells that are capable of contracting along its
o Includes the connective tissue fibers that harness those contraction
Vessels and Circulation
Two groups of blood vessels:
o Pulmonary circuit: supplies the lungs
Begins at pulmonary valve and ends at the entrance to the left atrium
Pulmonary arteries that branch from the pulmonary trunk carry blood to
Lymph: the fluid connective tissue transported and monitored by the lymphoid system
o Carried within lymphatic vessels
o Consists of:
Interstitial fluid; resembles blood but with lower concentration of
Osseous Tissue and Skeletal Structure
The skeletal system includes:
o Skeletal bones
o Other connective tissues that stabilize or interconnect them
Bones are the dynamic organs of the skeletal system
Joints (arthroses), or articulations, exist wherever two or more bones meet
o They may be in direct contact or separated by fibrous tissue, cartilage, or fluid
The function and range of motion of each joint depend on its anatomica
Quiz 2 Practice Problems
Solutions are given on the next worksheet.
1. A successful firm makes an acquisition at the end of 2011. It pays $20 million for
the acquired company. Assume that was the book value of the acquired
company's invested capi
Practice exam solutions
A. Note that in these questions, tranche A absorbs the prepayments before tranche B
Very similar to the chapter