Lasers, resonators, Gaussian beams
Why do we use Gaussian beams?
One clue: there was no Gaussian beam before 1960.
Answer 1: It is the simplest fundamental solution that matches a laser cavity
Let us look at a simple fundamental stable laser cavity
Brewster plate transmission
Notations for the polarization: s or , p or .
The transmission for the p component of the eld incident on the plate is 1, and the
reection of that same component is zero. Let I be the incident component perpendicular
to the p
Group velocity there is more to it than a beating of two frequencies
A pulse of light can be seen as a bullet that propagates through a medium, that can be vacuum, a
transparent medium, or even an absorbing or amplifying medium. In optics, we are used to
The pulse (as a bullet) approach to transmission
Figure 1 show a Fabry-Perot geometry making an internal angle with a pulse bouncing back and
forth between the surfaces. We can (nearly) totally forget about optics, and look at this problem from
Advanced Optics I (463)
Test 1, October 2, 2013
I. Thick lens problem [10 pts]
Several laser cavities are terminated by a curved mirror as output mirror. The rays (inside the laser
cavity) are issued from the center of curvature O (see Fig. 1. It is gener
Optics 463 Homework 4, due Monday, October 21, 2013
The White Cell (extra-credit)
A particular use of spherical mirrors is to make laser cavities, and optical delay lines. For
instance, two curved mirrors can be used to bounce a beam back and forth
Ray tracing problems
Consider a positive lens of focal distance 8 cm, followed by a negative lens of 2 cm focal length. At
which distance would you put the two lenses so that rays parallel to the optical axis emerge (after the t
Phase and Energy Conservation
Phase of a wave plays an essential role in interferometry with continuous narrow line radiation, and,
at the other end of the frequency bandwidth, with ultrashort pulses. There are phase shifts at interfaces.
Interfaces can b
PHYC463: Advanced Optics I
Light (photon) is a wave
In modern language we say that light consists actually of photons, just as matter is made of atoms. Our
intuitive picture of atoms is that they can nicely be classied by their mass in a ta
The Driving term in Maxwells propagation equation
Index of refraction due to electron
The index of refraction seems a trivial subject that we had been introduced to since our high
school studies through a Snells law. In the middle of twentieth centu
What to remember,
. . . when everything else has faded away?
Wave propagating in the +x direction:
(x, t) = f (x vt).
Wave propagating in the x direction:
(x, t) = f (x + vt).
2 2 = 0,
Both Eqs (1) and (2) are solutions of:
Optics 463 Homework 6, due Monday, October 28, 2013
Given two points O (at the origin of two coordinate axis x and y ) and P (at y = 0, x = s1 + s2 ),
nd the equation of the surface that will image O in P . O is in a medium of index n1
Harmonic Oscillator and plasma
The harmonic oscillator is everywhere in physics, mechanics and optics. A good lecture is
Electron oscillator applied to the description of polarization: Pedr