Fossil fuel resources are one of the major concerns of the 21st century as the
energy crisis that we all face is discussed. Petroleum will one day come to an end, so
scientists of all areas work together to solve this puzzle. Also, besides coming to an en

Motivation for
Entropy
First, Lets review
our previous
discussion of work
Pattern
PV
Driving Force
Chem Pot
W
State Quantity
Pattern
PV
Driving Force
Chem Pot
F
Force
W
l
Position
State Quantity
Pattern
PV
Driving Force
Chem Pot
Torque
W
n
Shaft Rotations

Chapter 3
Volumetric Properties of Pure
Fluids
Volumetric Properties of Pure Fluids
Equations of state PVT relationship
Simplest example:
PV = RT (ideal gas law)
Importance
Strength of pressure vessels
Temperature limits of materials
Volume of tanks
E

Chapter 4
Heat Effects
Heat Effects
Heat transfer is a common unit operation in the chemical
industry. Origins of heat follow:
Sensible change
Phase change
Chemical reaction
Example: Ethylene glycol production
Use: antifreeze agent, freezing point depr

Some Quotes
"A theory is the more impressive the greater the
simplicity of its premises, the more different kinds of
things it relates, and the more extended its area of
applicability. Therefore the deep impression that
classical thermodynamics made upon

Lecture 1.3
Accounting Concepts
READ: Chapter 17, Holtzapple & Reece, Foundations of Engineering
Systems
A system is a subset of the universe
defined by an engineer for the solution of
a problem.
It is the part of the universe the engineer
will model an

Chapter 2
The First Law and Other Basic
Concepts
First Law & Basics
READ: Chapter 22, Holtzapple & Reece, Foundations of Engineering
Basics
System region of interest (e.g., reactor, engine, cell, etc.)
Surroundings everything else
Universe = System + Surr

Abstract
A perpetual motion machine is a hypothetical machine that is in constant, infinite motion. Ideally,
a perpetual motion machine would provide an inexhaustible energy source that produces more
work or energy than it consumes and is efficient in eli

Chapter 1
Introduction
What is thermodynamics?
Thermodynamics
Thermodynamics:
Therme meaning heat, and
Dynamics meaning strength
Thermodynamics is the science of what is
possible and impossible
Major limitation: Cannot predict how long the
process ta

Imagining a movie running forwards
or backwards is a useful method for
thinking about reversibility, but what
would we do for a process that we
are not familiar with?
We need a better way to determine if
a process is reversible or not.
Better Approach:
Re

- What is urban geography
the quantities quantitate and qualitative study of towns and cities around the
world, their development, spatial form, attributes, dynamism, and
interdependencies with other places
urban systems - interdependent set of urban sett

Equation Sheet
P = gh
Pabsolute = Pgauge + Patmosphere
F=2-+N
H U + PV
dW = Fdl
t
Work: dW = PdV
dH = C p dT
For an ideal gas or for a fluid where H and U are f(T) only: dU = Cv dT
For an ideal gas:
C p = Cv + R
Ideal Gas Law:
PV = RT
Continuity Equation:

Homework 8
Due: Wednesday, March 23, 2016
1. Problem 5.3
2. Problem 5.9
3. Problem 5.28 (part a, b)
4. An ideal gas is confined to a cylinder by a piston. The piston is slowly pushed in so that the gas
temperature remains at 20 degrees Celsi

CHEN 205 Thermodynamics 1 Exam 2
Spring 2015, March 11 (Wednesday)
Name_
I , _, certify that I have worked independently on this exam and that I
did not cheat.
_
Signature
THIS EXAM IS CLOSED BOOK, CLOSED NOTES.
_
Date
Problem 1 (25 points)
Part A) Use th

CHEN 205 Thermodynamics 1 Final Exam
Spring 2015, May 7th (Friday)
Name_
I, _, certify that I have worked independently on this exam and
that I did not cheat.
_
_
Signature
Date
THIS EXAM IS CLOSED BOOK, CLOSED NOTES.
1. (20 points) Calculate the adiabati

CHEN 205 Thermodynamics 1 Exam 1
Spring 2015, February 11 (Wednesday)
Name_
I , _, certify that I have worked independently on this exam and that I
did not cheat.
_
Signature
THIS EXAM IS CLOSED BOOK, CLOSED NOTES.
_
Date
1. (20 points) A strain of yeast

Problem 1)
Part A) Superheated steam at 425 kPa and 300C expands isentropically to 40 kPa.
(i) Determine if the final state is a V-L mixture or if the final state is a superheated steam, (ii) calculate the final
temperature, and (iii) calculate the final

Richard Smalley
1943 to 2005
Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1996
Buckeyballs
Smalleys Top Ten Human Problems
1. Energy
2. Water
3. Food
4. Environment
5. Poverty
6. Terrorism/War
7. Disease
8. Education
9. Democracy
10.Population
http:/cohesion.rice.edu/Natu