Texas A&M University, College Station
Fall 2011
PETE
314
501
PETER VALKO
Total Number of Evaluations Submitted: 22
Total Number of Students Enrolled in the Class: 43
Percentage of students who submitted an evaluation: 51.16
The following questions were us
PETE 314 Transport Processes in Petroleum
Production
Fluid Mechanics: fluid statics; stress and strain, mass,
energy, momentum balances; friction losses, turbulent
flow, Reynolds Number (Moody diagram); Newtonian/NonNewtonian fluids; flow in porous media
Fluid Statics
Fluid Statics
The word statics is derived from Greek word statikos=
motionless
For a fluid at rest or moving in such a manner that there is
no relative motion between particles there are no shearing
forces present: Rigid body approximation
Quiz 2
A block of wood (SG = 0.96 ) is floating between a layer of gasoline and
water. What fraction of the wood is below the interface? (Hint: try not to
use the actual numerical value of the densities in one or other system of
units.)
Vwood woodg = Vwat
The Energy Balance for
steady, incompressible flow,
the Bernoulli Equation
(Extended) Mechanical Energy Balance
For steady flow, open system (Eq. 4.17, rearranged):
P V2
dWn. f .
dQ
gz
u
dm
dm
2
Injection
work
ke
pe
Pump,
compressor,
turbine wo
Fluid friction flow in pipe
The PressureDrop Experiment
P1
P2
Q
L
Laminar vs. Turbulent Flow
Laminar flow: Fluid flows in smooth layers
(lamina) and the shear stress is the result
of microscopic action of the molecules.
Turbulent flow is characterized by
NonNewtonian Fluid Friction
flow in pipe
STEADY LAMINAR FLOW OF NONNEWTONIAN FLUIDS IN
HORIZONTAL CIRCULAR TUBES
The shear stress at any location
from the force balance: (See slide
5.10)
Models considered here:
Power law
dV
K
dy
n
Bingham plastic
GasLiquid
Vertical GasLiquid Flow
Experiment
First only water flows
Let us hold the water flow rate
constant at 2 ft / s, and slowly
increase the air velocity from zero to
some large value.
This will cause F to increase, since
the overall linear velocit
Momentum Balance
Conservation of Momentum
For a mass, m, moving with a velocity V, the momentum is defined by:
Momentum = m V [=ML/T]
d (mV )
Newtons 2nd Law:
F
dt
kg m/s
s
Rate of
momentum
into CV

(m V ) in

Rate of
momentum
out of CV
(m V ) out
+
+
Positive Displacement and
Dynamic (Centrifugal) Pumps
dWn. f .
P
V2
F
gz
dm
2
dWn. f .
P
V2
m F
m Po m gz
2
dm
Work rate
Power
Heat generation rate
m
Po P m F
dWn. f . 1
P
V2 F
z
2g g
g
dm g
Example 1 (for liquid)
A pump is pumping 50
Flow in porous media
Chemical engineering formulation
In most porousmedium flows the friction term is
much, much larger than it would be in the
analogous flow in an empty vessel, and it is not
directly calculable from HagenPoisson eq.
For most porousme
Dimensional Analysis
Dimensional Analysis
Whenever an engineering problem cannot be solved by using the
equations and analytical procedures described previously, we must resort
to experimentation. The tool used to plan, design and interpret the
experiment
UIN Date PETE 314 Family, First
m l 0 Midterm Exam 2
Closed book and closed notes. Only cheat sheet is allowed. In case it is unavoidable, make further assumptions and
indicate it. Answer with some WORDS, in addition to any calculated number. Do not forge
8) (1 1) points) The uid in ue Utnbe is mercury (52;. 13.6)am2 the uid in bmh
tanks is water. Tank B is open to almusvhere imt tank A is cluscd. Whm i: The my:
prawn: ofthe air in tankA, it"h ? '
I, "xi
L2)
 , , wagWm
Compressible flow
Single phase gas flow (downward)
2
dp
V
4 f F
g sin( )
dl
2D
from horizontal
D
pM
ZRT
dz=dl sin()
dl
Z .
kg
m s2
m
f .
V .
M in kg/mol
(for air 0.029 kg/mol)
Single phase gas flow (almost horizontal)
2
dp
dl
q sc
q
pM q
2
pM
ZRT D /
Balances
Approaches for Analysis of Flow
In analyzing fluid motion we may take two paths:
1. Working with a finite region (=the control volume), making a
balance of flow in versus flow out and determining flow effects
such as forces, or total energy excha
B.E. for liquid
d W n. f .
m
F=Q P+ m
F
m=Po=
P+ m
dm
Gas compressor [adiabatic]
P2
nR T k
Vdp= k 11
P
1
dW
Poth m
dm a ,th
[( )
P2
P1
( k1) /k
1
]
, where
dW
dm a ,th
k 1
RT
k P2 k
1
M k 1 P1
Advantages of PD pump:
Works on the principle of l
HW06
Q.1. Oil at a rate 100 gal/min (10,286 BPD) is flowing
steadily from tank A to tank B through 3000 ft of a pipe of
internal diameter (ID) 3 in. The oil has specific gravity
0.85 and a viscosity of 2 cP. The levels of the free surfaces
are the same in
Problems 1
Terminal settling velocity is a term used when a particle (object) is falling in (through) fluid. While the
gravitational force is larger than the sum of the buoyancy force and the drag force, the object accelerates.
Ultimately (after a while)
PETE 314 Exam 3 Key
1 (10 points) At the tubinghead of a gas producing well the pressure is 500 psig. The gas then flows through a choke that
assures critical velocity. At the outlet of the choke normally the gas has 250 psig pressure and the gas flow ra
UIN Date ENGR 314 Familv. First
7' 29 08  Examl .
Closed book and closed notes. Only cheat sheets" are allowed. In case it is indispensable, make mher assumptions and
indicate it. Answer with some WORDS, in addition to any calculated number. Do not forge
Heat transfer applications
Heat Transfer Mechanisms
Conduction is the transfer (of energy) from the more energetic particles of a
substance to the adjacent less energetic ones as a result of interaction
between particles.
Convection is the mode of (energy
Problem 1
The SG of the fluid is 1.19.
The pressure in the air cushion of the tank is P = 9 psig.
The elevation difference is h = 17 ft.
Is the fluid flowing in to or out from the closed tank?
B
out ?
A
in ?
Using, for instance, the head form of the BE,
T
Problem 1 (15 points) Gasoline (SG=0.72) is siphoned from a tank. Point 3 is 1.5 m
lower than point 1. Point 2 is 8.5 m higher than point 1. Point 1 is at standard conditions.
At standard temperature the gasoline starts to "boil" (bubble) when the pressur
MQ07 Key
3
Gas (SG=0.7) flows at = 1 standard volumetric flowrate. The temperature is 300 K, the
pressure is P = 2.5 MPa (absolute). Under such conditions, the viscosity is = 0.015 . What pipe
diameter would be necessary to keep the flow laminar?
Solutio
PETE 314  MQ03
Section
Date
UIN
Family, First
Closed book and closed notes. Only "PETE 314sheet" is allowed. In case it is indispensable, make further assumptions
and indicate it. Answer with some WORDS, in addition to any calculated number. Do not forge
Problem:
An oil well is on artificial lift, using Electric Submersible Pump (ESP). During one year, the reservoir pressure
decreases by 2500 psi. Using electricity cost 0.1 $/ kWhr and overall ESP efficiency 75 %, calculate the increase
of lifting cost i