Translating information from outside the nervous system into neural
Process through which sensations are interpreted
o How we give meaning to what we have sensed
Basic Steps of Sensing
Chapter 2- Researching
Conducting Ethical Research
Institutional Review Board
o Makes decisions on if the study meets cost benefit
Costs include time, health, etc.
Researchers have been trained
Researchers must provide sufficient inform
Chapter 5 States of Consciousness
o Our subjective awareness of ourselves and our environment
Freuds theories differentiate between the unconscious and
conscious aspects of behavior
Studies the course and causes of developmental changes over a
persons life span.
Developmental- age related, systematic, sequential, and long
Zygote- first two weeks of development
Biological Psychology & Behavioral Genetics
o The study of the cells and organs of the body, and the
physical and chemical changes involved in behavior and
o The study o
Chapter 1- Intro to Psyc
What is psychology?
The scientific study of behavior and mental process, with the goal of
applying the resultant knowledge in the service of human welfare.
o Behavior and mental interactions and process
o Not just
Types of memoires
o Meanings; general knowledge
o How to; skills
o Remembering to do something in the future
o Knowledge or experiences that can be consciously
Process through which experience modifies pre-existing behavior
Discovery of Classical Conditioning
Pavlov studied digestive systems of dogs
o Sometimes dogs salivated without food present
Definition: scientifically studies how we think about, influence, and relate to one another.
Helps us understand why many forms of social influence are so powerful
Humans as a social species
o Need to belong
Psychological Disorders: People are fascinated by the exceptional, the unusual, and the abnormal. This
fascination may be caused by two reasons:
1. During various moments we feel, think, and act like an abnormal individu
Personality: An individuals characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting.
The Conception of Personality:
Personality is a system of interrelated parts
Subfields are organized from those studying smaller units to those s
Neuroscience and Behavior
History of Mind:
Neuroscience (or Biological Psychology)
Study of the brain and behavior
o The brain contains approximately 100 billion neurons (nerve cells)
o True or False: We use only 10% of our brain.
States of Consciousness
History of Consciousness
Psychology began as a science of consciousness.
Behaviorists argued about alienating consciousness from psychology.
However, after 1960, mental concepts (consciousness) started reentering psycholo
Sensation & Perception
Sensation: the detection of physical energy (a stimulus) from the environment and conversion into neural
Perception: the selection, organization, and interpretation of our sensations.
Chapter 3 Study Notes
Nature, Nurture, and Human Diversity
Explanations for what makes you you?
Behavior Genetics: study out differences and weigh the relative effects of heredity and environment
o Genes: holds the information that determines individual
Psychology: The systematic
study of behavior and mental
We can see the hitting behavior.
Sensation and Perception
Receptionabsorption of energy
Transduction changing from the stimulus to neural event
Coding maintenance of sensory information encoded as neurally
Psychophysics - the study of the relationship be
Neuroscience and Behavior
The nervous system (and accessory systems) is responsible for:
1. The control of simple and complex responses
2. Decision making
3. Processing of sensory information
4. Providing the spice of emotions
5. Taking into account the p
Learning a relatively permanent change in behavior
associated with experience and practice.
Based on past behavior and the consequences associated
with that behavior, likely outcomes are predictable.
Classical Conditioning (CC) Ivan Pavlov
States of Consciousness
Biological Rhythms cyclical activities or behaviors that are related to distinct
environmental features (ex. Day-Night cycles of light).
Zeitgebers (ZG) the environmental stimuli that serve as time givers.
Any environmental stimulu
Thinking, Language, and Intelligence
Memory the mental process that allows us to retain and use information
Information Processing Paradigm:
Encoding-converting a stimulus into a form that can be stored
This often involves Rehearsal-
Behaviors that benefit society or other people
William Mosley stabbed her
38 witnesses did nothing
Why don't we help?
At cost to self
Without regard for benefit to self
has to be done by friday
Social learning theory
culture is transmitted via social learning
imitation, informational social influence, normative social influence,
agression learned by watching o
If someone in an authority position get someone to do something increasingly
aggressive. (Even though They know better)
He initially thought that 1/10 of 1% would agree to do the acts
in actuality 50
Conformity (unconscious for the most part)
the tendency to change our perceptions, opinions, and or behaviors so that
they match those of people around us
majority or minority
conform to either one
groups of individuals
we can conform to an individual or
Explicit vs. Implicit
Intra-attitudinal consistency (look at the slides with the diagram)
When they all three line up and make sense
Recap for The Self
Self: content about who we are, agent active in the knowing
seems to start forming, 20 months
can act as a schema
social comparison theory
"looking glass" self
How favorably som
Knowledge of who you are
you, the agent is doing the knowing
A book who is able to read its self
William James (1890)
I and ME
ME is like the library information
information about you
I is the person doing the seeking
knower of the self
Hot vs cold cognitions
thought that you have that's just there
unmotivated, simply a by product of limited capacity
motivated at the service of our egos
"liberals are dumb"
makes us feel better about being a conse