Chapter: Chapter 09: Biological Foundations of Personality
1. The case of Phineas Gage illustrates the importance of
a) the brain for specific personality characteristics.
b) the brain for the ability to walk and speak.
c) the brain for co
Chapter: Chapter 14: Personality in Context: Interpersonal Relations, Culture, and
Development Across the Course of Life
1. In recent years, personality psychologists have focused on personality factors in
a) laboratory settings.
Chapter: Chapter 13: Social-Cognitive Theory: Extensions, Applications, and Evaluation
1. The study of self-concept has been of much research interest
a) throughout all eras of the history of personality psychology.
b) in the recent era of
Chapter: Chapter 11: A Cognitive Theory of Personality: George A. Kelly's Personal Construct
Theory of Personality
1. As a scientist, Kelly viewed the person as
a) basically good.
b) basically active.
c) basically evil.
d) a "tabula rasa"
Chapter: Chapter 12: Social Cognitive Theory: Bandura and Mischel
1. Social cognitive personality theorists are critical of approaches that emphasize
a) unconscious forces.
d) all of the above.
Chapter: Chapter 10: Behaviorism and the Learning Approaches to Personality
1. Behavioral approaches to personality are critical of trait approaches for their emphasis
a) systematic investigation.
b) use of verbal report.
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) - a disability showing these
characteristics over a period of time: inattention, hyperactivity, impulsivity
They may get bore
Children acquire new skills that make it possible to learn to read and write:
increased use of language to talk about things that are not physically
learning what a word is
learning how to
Memory & Intelligence
Metacognition - cognition about cognition, or knowing about knowing
studies of metacognition have focused on metamemory - knowledge
Intelligence - problem-solving skills a
Mild autism spectrum disorder
Child has relatively good verbal language, milder nonverbal language
problems, and a restricted range of interests and relationships
Until the 1970s chi
Extremes of Intelligence
Mental retardation - a condition of limited mental ability in which an individual
has a low IQ, usually below 70 on a traditional intelligence test, and has difficulty
adapting to everyday life
Physical and Cognitive Development in Middle and Late Childhood
Children with Disabilities
14% of children in the United States receive special education or related services
5.4 percent have a learning disability or atte
Socioemotional Development in Middle and Late Childhood
The Development of Self-Understanding
Children increasingly describe themselves with psychological characteristics and
They become more likely to recognize so
Self-regulation - deliberate efforts to manage ones behavior, emotions, and
thoughts that lead to increased social competence and achievement
Capacity in self-regulation is linked to developmental advances
The Concrete Operational Stage
Concrete operational stage lasts from approximately 7 to 11 years of age
Children can perform concrete operations and they can reason logically when it
can be applied to specific or concrete
After age 7, short-term memory does not show as much increase as it did in the
Long-term memory - relatively permanent and unlimited type of memory
Improvements in memory reflect increased knowledg