What was approximate magnification of von Leeuwenhoek's first scope? - 300x
Earth is (blank) yo .life is about (blank) yo - 4.5 B; 3 B
Why can bacteria undergo life-processes so much faster than us? - very rich with
3 kingdoms of the 3 kingdom s
Microbiology - A specialized area of biology that deals with living things ordinarily too
small to be seen without magnification, including bacteria, archaea, fungi, protozoa,
algae, and viruses
Microorganisms - A living thing ordinarily too small to be s
Which cells go under a clonal immune response? - B cells and T cells
What do T helper cells do? - They secrete cytokimes that help B cells to produce better
antibodies, activate CTL, and further activate macrophages
When do antibodies enter the serum? - W
A compound produced by pathogens which destroys WBCs. - leukocidin
We discussed two submodes that can be considered direct modes of transmission. - direct
The non-living object on which a pathogen is transmitted. - fomite
How do these genera Gram stain?
;Clostridium - Gram+ (purple)
Discuss the oxygen requirements and motility of the two spirochete pathogens we've
covered. - both are motile microaerophiles
(Borrelia burgdorferi and T
What does active vaccination produce?
Immunity, because the cells generate
memory cells. An active vaccination takes time to kick in.
What is a passive vaccination?
Purified antibodies, protects temporarily because
antibodies don't last forever. It could
Name some instances in which the immune system plays a positive role. - Acute
infections, vaccination, and tumors
Name some instances in which the immune system plays a negative role. Transplantation, autoimmunity, chronic phase of viral infections (such
"ringworm" is actually caused by: - the tineas.dermatophyte fungi
"The NA of mycologists" Saboraud's dextrose agar
selects based on: - high osmotic concentration of dextrose (and low pH in unmodified)
No. 1 causative agent of fungal death in US. - Candida
This systemic fungal pathogen shows large, round, yeast-like cells in human tissue, but
mold-like colonies on Saboraud's dextrose agar. - Blastomyces dermatitidis
This vitamin is degraded in the pasteurization of milk and so is often added back to milk
Most bacteria can only use this form of organic molecules.
The bacteria themselves may secrete the enzymes to dissolve carbon externally before
they uptake it.
What kind of molecules solve the toxicity problem the cell would otherwise face from the
HGT - horizontal gene transfer
Roughly how many genes are in the E.coli chromosome? - 3k
Which types of bacteria are capable of transformation? - All types;
Cells must be competent which means they have a transmembrane DNA binding protein
for the uptake o