GIS - Geographic Information System is made up of computer models and the tools
needed for analyzing them.
Layers - collection of geographic objects that are alike makes up a GIS map
features - have shape, size, location, and spatial relationships
3 models/dimensions of primary and secondary data - temporal, spatial, and thematic.
Thematic dimension describes the character of the real-world feature to which the data
refer. Could be the size and consequences of an avalanche. In GIS thematic = nonspa
Components of GIS - Hardware, Software, People, Data and Infrastructure
Nominal - Data that shows different kinds or different categories, Land-use types or soil
Ordinal - Data that are ranked, Large, medium and small cities
Interval - Data with kno
nominal data - descriptive, means "name"
quantile data - 3 types: 1. ordinal, 2. interval, 3. ratio
quantitative data should use _ in color ramp - single hue (light to dark)
if there's only one city/state as an outlier that stands out, _ might not be the
.shp file* - - a vector data storage format (shapefile) for storing the location, shape, and
attributes of geographic features.
- stored in a set of related files and contains one feature class.
active data frame* - The data frame currently being worked o
Remote Sensing - the measurement of physical, chemical, and biological properties of
objects without direct contact
(Satellite imagery, Aerial Photography)
Remote Sensing Types - - Passive (Natural Radiation measured)
- Active (Sensing device emits energy
Why is GPS Important
to Mappers and Resource Managers? - -Mapping - Locate Features That Can be
Incorporated into a GIS.
-Navigation- Allows User to Visit the Same Location Again.
-Decision Support Tool- New innovations allow GPS to tie in with other syst
accuracy - The degree to which information on a map or in a digital database matches
true or accepted values. About how an object that is represented is true to form.
precision - Intensity or level of preciseness, or exactitude in measurements. Hence, a
What does GIS stand for? - Geographic Information Systems
What is Data Modelling? - Turning entities into complex objects (geometry, quality).
What are the 2 subsystems in data modelling? - 1. Database.
2. Data Storage.
Is GIS a map? - No but maps are mad
4 Locations of Distributed GIS - 1. User Interface
3. Data processor
Metadata - Data about data
1. Allows for automated search.
2. Shows usefulness
3. Provide info for effective use
4. Provide info on contents
Metadata Standards - 1. Ti
Advantages of computer-assisted cartography - Lower cost for simple maps, faster
Greater flexibility in output - easy scale or projection change - maps can be tailored to
Other uses for digital data
Digitizing process and a "puck" -