A stream with very little bed load will result in what type of
channel pattern? straight
urbanization usually results in an increase in flood frequency
because less water is able to infiltrate into the grounbd, which
hydrographs fromn urban
The deadliest earthquake in recorded history, as far as we know,
occurred in 1556, when about _ Chinese were killed,
but the deadliest earthquake disaster of the 20th century occurred
in 1976, killing about _, also in China. 830,000
and 240,000, respectiv
Rapid crustal thickening during continental collisions produces
high temperatures because of the large
amount of radiogenic elements in continental crust. The pressures
are moderate because continental
crust is never thicker than ~7
Ophiolites can be emplaced onto a continental margin by
subduction of the margin beneath an
immature oceanic arc, or intraoceanic thrusting along transform
faults when young and old lithosphere
Rapid subduction advects col
In magmatic arcs, heat is advected to shallow levels, producing
low-P but high-T metamorphism;
typically this involves contact metamorphism. Where numerous
intrusions have been emplaced or at
deeper levels of an arc, a quasi-region
Mineral - Natural, crystaline inorganic substance of which rocks are made of.
Bond - Attachment between atoms and molecules.
Cleavage - The way that a mineral splits between layers of atoms that are joined by weak
Cleavage Planes - Flat surfaces al
element - A substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by ordinary
atom - The smallest particle that can exist as an element
molecule - 2 or more atoms joined together
compound - A molecule comprised of two or more elements
Mineral - A mineral is a naturally occurring inorganic solid that has a crystal structure
and a definite chemical composition. Must have these 5 characteristics:
1) naturally occuring, (quartz formed as magma cools)
2) inorganic, not formed from materials
*Various-sized rock fragments with rounded edges are
compacted and cemented together - Conglomerate- Clastic sedimentary
Limestone is forced deep inside Earth and put under
great heat and pressure - Marble
Lava erupts calmly from
Describe two ways rocks were used by early humans? - rocks as hammers to make other
tools and weapons -1
Describe two ways rocks are used today? - scalpels, buildings, roads and monuments.-1
Describe how each type of rock changes into another as it moves
What do geologists observe about a rock by looking at a sliver of it under a microscope? 1) The size and shape of crystals in the rock
2) identify the minerals it contains
Why do geologists cut a rock very thin to view under a microscope? - So that light
Rock - A naturally formed solid that is usually made up of one or more types of
Rock Cycle - set of natural processes that form, change, breakdown and re-form rocks
Igneneous Rock - Type of rock that forms when molten rock cools and becomes sol
sediments - materials that settle out of water or air.
Some can contain pieces of plant or animal remains.
coal - an unusual sedimentary rock that forms from plants instead of earlier rocks.
Formed millions of years ago in swamps.
clastic sediments - make
minerals - These are inorganic, solid materials found in nature.
inorganic - Minerals are _, which means they usually are not formed by plants
Rocks - _ are made of two or more minerals.
characteristics - Each mineral has unique _ you can use
intrusive rocks - Rocks that form from magma trapped below the earths surface and form
large grained igneous rock when it cools
extrusive rocks - Magma cooling at or near Earth's surface forms small grained igneous
intrusive rocks - as magma cools,