5. Pain information from the skin travels to the spinal Cord over several different kinds of axons. The
A6 bers conduct action potentials at up to 30 m 3'1 whereas the small unmyelinated C fibers
conduct more slowly. This information is processed beginnin
Isolated cardiac sarCoplasmic reticulum vesicles have an average outside diameter of about 150
nm. The membrane itself is about 10 nm thick. The enclosed volume can be estimated by
measuring the efflux of passively loaded tracer materials such as manni
PROBLEM SET 3.2: NEUROMUSCULAR TRANSMISSION, MUSCLE FORCE, and ENERGETICS
1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8
1. At rest in muscle cells, the Em is not constant but shows seemingly random uctuations that appear to
be in units of about 0.5 mV. These are called miniature end
B. Calculate the capacitance per unit length.
lr Splva Mr L cfw_AW Ural-b @3143
L- l= 0
ST- lmm' WLJLQ-cfw_V
3 C: kg A g; 135% max ("Mym ) _ 555,40? n
. N e' f0*bw at, F.56 if :
Kafrat: L6$l9'rm)L: jjil-lwlyL-ZL (mi? : Wig
C. Calculate the tr
4. Blood plasma viscosity = 0.02 poise (dyne s cmz)
The fractional pore area" is the totat area of the pores divided by the total area of the membrane. (A dyne
is a g cm 5-2).
B. Calculate the glomerular ltration rate (GFR) assuming a total area for both
Name: (ZkSg JV!" -
PROBLEM SET 3.1: MEMBRANE POTENTIAL, ACTION POTENTIAL, NERVE CONDUCTION. and
1, 3(a-d), 4, 5, 7(a,b), 11, 13
1. Muscle cells are long, multinucleated cells that are shaped something like cylinders that taper near
Graph the membrane potential against time. Dees this vaguely resemble an action potential?
om ache pitfalls?
The action potential on a motor neuron lasts about 1.5 ms. A large motor neuron conducts the
action potential at about 100 m 34.
4. Neuron A makes a synapse on a dendrite on a motorneuron and neurotransmission at this synapse
produces a 5 mV depolarization immediately adjacent to the synapse.
A. Why is the EPSP less when measured further away?
limit oir chewy '05
B. Why would you e
Name: Eil%90 Tm; '
PROBLEM SET 4.1: NERVE CONDUCTION
1, 5, 6, 7, 8, 12, 15
1. Renshaw (J. Neurophys. 3:373-387 (1940) provided an ingenious method for estimating the time of synaptic
delay in the spinal cord. He stimulated the intermediate grey of the spi
3. Assume that a membrane is permeable only to Na" and K. The concentrations of ions are:
[Na*]u = 145 mM [Nat].- = 12 mM
[Km = 4 mM cfw_W: = 155 mM
A. Calcuiate the equilibrium potential for Na, EN3. 5 J1 I
l in 1m:\.n%mcsuom1n(u\= .OlobSb \/
i i: m (8
B. What fraction of the force generators on the thick laments do not overiap with the thin lament?
8. Consider muscle bers that are 8 cm long and that develop a maximum of 20 N cm'a force. Consider
a muscle that has a volume of 20 cm3 with the bers aligne
PROBLEM. SET 4.1: HERVE WWW"
1,. 5, 6, '3, 3, 12, 15
Hensium' (J. Neumphya. 3313-33? cfw_1940): ptmdded an Ingenious maihod for astllmiing the lm of synapu
delay in le spinal curd. HE smuiated ihe intemiediaie greyuf'be spinal Bord trim 5mm Iargnr stim
PROBLEM SET 2.2. MEMBRANE TRANSPORT
1, 2. 6. 13, 14, 22
1. The GLUT-1 transporter has a Km for glucose of 1.5 mM. The normal, resting plasma glucose
concentration is about 90 mg%. This is a clinical unit that is not part of the S! but you have to get
B. Calculate the free energy for the reaction Nam > Naout for the following conditions
during the rest phase of the heart:
[Na*]o = 145 x 103 M [Na+]a = 14 x 10'3 M Em = -0.085 volts
be: ZTIA(CI\J_Q% >+ z (3)03 (5M3
- [1.3/4 E'T .64: W
A. Identify the major steps that could airman forthe 45 minute lag in appearance of calbindin.
1. Web into pitwliwt w am (Mn
QTWSii; (la/Mb W OWSQl
@. Extwtsfm Ram rm cell
B. Eucaryotic cells (cells without a nucleus) attach amino acids to new proteins at
11. Two objects are drawn on a sheet of white paper, 4 cm apart. You are instructed to close the right eye and focus
on the object to the right. starting with the paper about 30 cm from your eye. As you draw the paper towards you.
you notice that at about
7'. Just before noon, your plasma glucose concentration was 100 mg dL-i. This plasma glucose is
approximately evenly distributed among 3.5 L of plasma and 10.5 L of interstitial uid that comprises
your 14 L of ECF. Glucose is readily distributed in both c
. Liposomes fom'i structures with an outside diameter of 100nm. The average density of the lipids
used to form the tiposomes is 0.89 g cm*3. Assume that the thickness of the bilayer is 8 nm.
A. What is the volume of the lipid shell? What is its mass?
11. Superoxide reduces cytochrome C in the reaction Cyt CCFe3+ + 02- .> Cyt C-Fe2+ + 02
Where Cyt C-Fe3+ is the oxidized form and Cyt C-Fe2+ is the reduced form of cytochrome C. The
reaction can be followed spectrophotometrically at 550 nm. The extinction
PROBLEM SET 1.2. KINETICS AND DIFFUSION
1, 3, 4 (a-c). 7. 8, 11. 12(a-b), 13, 19(a,b)
Student Name: WM
1. A. T e empirical formula of glucose is C6H1206. What is its molecular weight?
I. Saw. 0( .mole chla/ men?
. MQMJC mass :C:n,-0l it: iiOig 0 -'-' My?
C. Estimate the synaptic delay from the traces.
[yaw-Zn olfatclvb QXc/Ieol 59 H66 Submapll'c data/5
Pv 0.3m -
Estimate the time of diffusion for a neurotransmitter across a 100 nm synaptic gap using the Equations
developed in Chapter 1.6.
i. J? '0 ' -
PROBlEM SET 4.2: SENSORY- CONDUCTtON
1, 2, 4, 6, 11, 13, 15
1. The reference intensity for sound Is 10 12 watts m2. The density of dry air at 273 K Is 1.293 g L" and the velocity
of sound :3 331 m s". This reference intensity corresponds to what maximum p
PROBLEM SET 2.1: SURFACE TENSION, MEMBRANE STRUCTURE, MICROSCOPIC RESOLUTION
AND CELL FRACTIONATION
1.23, 4, 5, 7, 13, 14
Student Name: 0x 50
1- Consider a soap lm stretched over a wire frame, one end of which is movable. Experimentatly,
one observes that
i _ b _ .," w.
V:% 1711? drillI <_ .00?5 ;_W_
When you roll down a long hill, and then try to stand immediately upon reaching the bottom, you discover that
you are dizzy. Why?
Natasha/um 33 mm Swag elude/f cfw_M 65d i8: 361400?
0671025 Vit Ot' 3&3
PROBLEM SET 1.1. PHYSICAL FOUNDATIONS: PRESSURE AND ELECTRICAL
FORCES AND FLOWS
Identify whether the following variables are intensive or extensive:
The lower the concentration of the NaCl solution, the more deplasmolysis will occur
within the plant cells because plasmolysis defined as the swelling of the cytoplasm of a
plasmolyzed cell. When a cell is in a hypotonic s
Chapter 11 Review
REMEMBER: This is a Chapter 11 review. This is everything you need to know for the Chapter
11 portion of the test. This says nothing about the portion of the test taught by Oscar.
Questions about this portion of the test should be referr
3.7 Review Questions.
1. What happens if ATP is not regenerated during muscle contraction?
- Muscle fatigue
2. What reactions consume ATP during muscular activity? Which of these consumes most of the ATP?
3. What does creatine Kinase do? What does myok