Psychological research and theorizing that attempts to account for the psychological
differences between and within different cultural groups. (page 474)
The process of socialization through which an individual acqu
Chapter 2 Review
Data Are Clues
In order to study personality, first you must look at it: All science begins with observation. The
observations a scientist makes, expressed as numbers, are data.
Four Kinds of Clues
For the scientific study of personality,
Chapter 1 Review
The Goals of Personality Psychology
Personality psychologys unique mission is to address the psychological triad of thought, feeling,
and behavior, and to try to explain the functioning of whole individuals. This is an impossible
COURSE DESCRIPTION: A comprehensive introduction to research, theory, and application in
the field of personality. Individual differences and situation influences are examined
Chapter 8 Review
Studies of the biology of personality raise the philosophical issue called the mind-body problem,
which concerns the degree to which all aspects of human nature can be understood as processes
of our physical brains and bodies, making huma
Chapter 6 Review
Consequences of Everyday Judgments of Personality
People judge the personalities of each other and of themselves all the time, and these judgments
have important consequences.
Other peoples judgments of an individual can affect that perso
Chapter 13 Review
Humanistic psychology concentrates on the ways that studying humans differs from studying
objects or animals, including such issues as experience, awareness, and free will.
Phenomenology: Awareness Is Everything
The phenomenological pers
Chapter 9 Review
Behavioral genetics concerns the degree to which personality is inherited from parents and
shared among genetic relatives.
Evolutionary psychology concerns the ways in which human personality (and other behavioral
propensities) may have b
Chapter 10 Review
Unlike many approaches to personality, the psychoanalytic approach concentrates on the cases
where the cause of behavior is mysterious and hidden.
Freud was a practicing psychotherapist, and developed his ideas from the cas
Chapter 7 Review
Traits are useful not just for predicting behavior, but also for increasing our understanding of the
reasons for behavior. This chapter examined four basic approaches to the study of traits.
The Single-Trait Approach
The single-trait appr
Chapter 5 Review
The Nature of Personality Assessment
Any characteristic pattern of behavior, thought, or emotional experience that exhibits relative
consistency across time and situations is part of an individuals personality. These patterns
The somewhat mysterious inner self of thinking, observation, and experience; also called
the I, as opposed to the me or epistemological self. (page 609)
epistemological self Knowledge of one's own personality traits, experiences, and othe
The mental activities of personality, including perception, thought, motivation, and emotion.
Activation of a concept or idea by repeatedly perceiving it or thinking about it. The usual
result is that this concept
A pattern of thought, feeling, and behavior that goes beyond the normal range and
causes problems for the affected individual or for others. Ten personality disorders are
recognized by the DSM-IV-TR; six of these are projected to be r
Chapter 4 Review
The Measurement of Individual Differences
The trait approach to personality begins by assuming that individuals differ in their characteristic
patterns of thought, feeling, and behavior. These patterns are called personality traits.
Chapter 3 Review
Psychologys Emphasis on Method
Psychology emphasizes the methods by which knowledge can be obtained, and is generally more
concerned with better understanding human nature than cataloging specific facts.
Scientific Education and Technical
Chapter 14 Review
If, as the phenomenologists claim, a persons construal of the world is all-important, a logical
next question concerns the variations in such construals of reality across cultures.
Culture and Psychology
Individuals from different cultur
Chapter 11 Review
Anxiety can originate in the real world or in inner psychic conflict, such as produced by an
impulse of the id that the ego and superego try to combat.
The ego uses several defense mechanisms to protect against
After taking the five factor test online I realized that most of the results were
fairly accurate, in my opinion. When taking the test I wasnt sure what to expect and was
not fully aware of what the five factors were and how important they are in everyday
Chapter 16 Review
The major personality processes include perception, thought, motivation, and emotion.
The Historical Roots of Research Into Personality Processes
Modern research on personality processes has historical roots in the learning and
Chapter 12 Review
Freud died more than half a century ago, but his theory lives on and continues to stimulate
controversy and argument.
Many modern writers have altered Freuds ideas in various degrees through their summaries and
Chapter 17 Review
The I and the Me
According to William James, the self includes the me, the object of self-knowledge, and the I,
the mysterious entity that does the knowing. Psychology has much more to say about the me than
The Self Across Culture
defense mechanisms In psychoanalytic theory, the mechanisms of the ego that serve to protect an individual
from experiencing anxiety produced by conflicts with the id, superego, or reality. (page
The phenomenon in which one part of t
A general term for the psychoanalytically oriented work of many theorists and researchers
who are influenced by Freud's theory. (page 410)
The modern school of psychoanalytic thought that believes the most important
The theoretical view of personality that focuses on overt behavior and the ways in which
behaviorist approach) it can be affected by rewards and punishments in the environment. A modern variant is
the social learning approach, which adds a
The study of conscious experience. Often, conscious experience itself is referred to as an
individual's phenomenology. (page 441)
An individual's particular experience of the world or way of interpreting reality. (page 442)
The assumption that everything psychological has a cause that is, in principle, identifiable.
In psychoanalytic theory, the repository of the drives, the emotions, and the primitive,
unconscious part of the mind that want
Chapter 15 Review
Behaviorisms key tenet is that all of behavior stems from the rewards and punishments in past
and present environments.
The philosophical roots of behaviorism include empiricism, a belief that all knowledge comes
Chapter 18 Review
People are different from each other; when these differences consistently cause problems, they
may amount to personality disorders.
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-IV) of the American Psyc