Lecture 1 Notes: Designing a Buffer
Base Buffer Example: NH3 (aq) + H2O (l)
NH4 (aq) + OH (aq)
When strong acid is added, NH3 accepts protons from incoming acid to make NH4+. When strong
base is added, NH4+ donates a proton to form NH3 and H2O. pH rem
Lecture 6 Notes: Kinetics Experiments
When considering a chemical reaction, one must ask whether the reaction will go
(thermodynamics), and how fast the reaction will go (kinetics).
A kinetics experiment measures the rate at which the concentration of a s
Lecture 3 Notes: Oxidation Reactions
Guidelines for assigning oxidation numbers
1) In free elements, each atom has an oxidation number of zero. Example H2
2) For ions composed of only one atom the oxidation number is equal to
Lecture 2 Notes: pH Ranges
Example: Titration of weak acid with strong base
25.0 mL of 0.10 M HCOOH with 0.15 M NaOH (Ka = 1.77 x 10-4 for HCOOH)
1. Volume = 0 mL of NaOH added
Before any NaOH is added, the problem is that of an ionization of a weak acid
Lecture 5 Notes: Overall Reactions
A molecules color can depend on oxidation state or liganded state. Example: oscillating clock.
Consider the overall reaction:
IO3- + 2 H2O2 + CH2(CO2H)2 + H+ ICH(CO2H)2 + 2 O2 + 3 H2O
The overall reaction can be broken i
Lecture 9 Notes: Gas-Phases
Effect of Temperature on Reaction Rates
A qualitative observation is that reaction rates tend to increase with increased temperature. Now
we will consider the quantitative effect.
In 1889, Svante Arrhenius plotted rat
Lecture 10 Notes: Molecular Barriers
Increasing the temperature can cause reaction to shift in endothermic direction.
= E a,f - E
Lecture 8 Notes: Reaction Mechanisms
2NO (g) + O2 (g) 2NO2 (g)
It is experimentally determined that the rate of formation of NO2 is kobs [NO]2[O2]
Overall order = ?
Is a one step mechanism likely?
NO + NO
Lecture 7 Notes: Radioactive Decay
Kinetics Topics: Radioactive Decay, Second Order Integrated Rate Laws, Kinetics and
Chemical Equilibrium, Introduction to Reaction Mechanisms
Chapter 13 (p 498-501, 507-508) and Chapter 17 (p 660-664)