Chapter 19 Test Yourself
1. What structures are derivatives of a birds skin and what are they made of?
- Beaks: tough horny epidermal covering that continually grows
- Claws: posses a horny sheath derived from specialized scales at the end of eac
Heart Location, Shape, and Size
Mediastinum is the central space that separates
the left and right pleural cavities
The heart lies within the mediastinum
The mainstem bronchi, esophagus, lymph nodes,
and vascular structures lie within the medial
Three Main Functions of Blood
Carries O2, nutrients and other essential compounds
to cells of the body
O2 carried by hemoglobin in red blood cells
Nutrients are dissolved in plasma
Carries waste products of cellular metabolism away
Muscular System Terminology
Myo- refers to muscle generally
Sarco- more specifically refers to muscle
Myology is the study of muscles
Myotis is inflammation of muscle tissue
Moves the bones of the skeleton which in turn
extensive organ system
Is derived from living tissue but dead
Gave up organelles to take on keratin during
Cells die during keratinization
hooves, horns, claws, and skin related
Functions of t
The Skeletal System
Is the framework of the body
It protects the soft tissues
Provides leverage points from which the
muscles can move
As discussed previously bone is made of a matrix
and cells called osteoblasts
The matrix is ma
GI Tract or Alimentary Canal or
Extends from the mouth through the esophagus,
stomach, small intestine, and large intestine to
1) Prehension (grasping) of the food with the lips or
2) Mechanical grinding or brea
Systems charged with maintaining homeostasis
Table 15-1 contrasts the methods and results the
two different systems use to help maintain
homeostasis in the body
Endocrine System Characteristics
Primary function is to bring oxygen into
the body and carry carbon dioxide out
Two types of respiration
Occurs in lungs
Exchanges O2 and CO2 between lungs and blood
flowing through pulmonary capillaries
Occurs all over
There are multiple metabolic reactions that keep the body
going, but all produce byproducts
Some byproducts can be recycle others are of no use and
may be harmful if they accumulate
Potentially harmful substances are called waste produc
Cell Types of the Nervous
Neuroglia or glial cells
Group of cells that support and protect the
Make up half of cells of the nervous system
Not directly involved in information transfer
Responsible for nervous impulse tr
Are extensions of the central nervous system that
allow it to monitor what is going on inside and
outside the body
Have specially modified nerve endings called
Sensory receptors send nerve impulses to CNS
that are interpr
Avian Anatomy and Physiology
In This Chapter We Will Discuss the
Unique Features of Birds
Consists of two layers
Epidermis outer layer
Relatively thin and composed of flattened epithelial cells that
Dermis inner layer
Chapter 1 Vocabulary
1. Anatomy: The study of the form and structure of an animal body and its parts.
Through anatomy we can describe where things are located in or on the animal
body and what they look like.
2. Physiology: The study of the functions of t
What are we going to study?
Form and function of the body and its parts
What things look like and where they are
Functions of the body and its parts
How things work and what they do
Why are we going to study this?
Chapter 20: Amphibian and Reptilian Anatomy and Physiology
1. What are the four orders of living reptiles? What are the three orders of amphibians?
The class Reptilia comprises four orders: (1) Crocodylia (alligators and crocodiles), (2)
Chapter 5 test yourself
1. Why is skin important?
-It covers the entire body.
2. Can you think of five important functions of the skin?
1. Prevents desiccation
3. Helps maintain body temperature
4. Excretes water, salt, and organic wastes
Chapter 5 Vocabulary
1. Integument: The skin of the body, consisting of dermis and epidermis.
2. Integumentary system: The skin and all of its related components, such as nails,
hairs, hooves, and horns.
3. Keratin: A tough, waterproof protein that makes
Chapter 6 Test Yourself
1. Besides supporting other tissues of the body, what else do bones do?
-Support: everything is attached to or hangs from bone.
-Protects: partially or completely surround many organs such as the brain
-Leverage: muscles ar
Chapter 7 Test Yourself
1. What is muscle?
- Muscle is made up of cells that can shorten or contract.
2. What are the three types of muscle and what are some of the general characteristics of each
1. Skeletal: Skeletal muscle is controlled by the co
Chapter 8 Test Yourself
1. What is another name for the interpleural space where the heart is located?
2. Describe the layers of the heart. Between which two layers is there a fluidfilled space?
- Fibrous pericardium: outer covering that att
1. What are the main functions of blood?
2. What is one of the most common causes of hemoconcenteration, and how can
it affect blood cell counts in peripheral blood?
Caused by dehydrated fluid leaving the plasma and e
Chapter 13: The Nervous System
1. How are the functions of neurons and neuroglia different from each other?
Neurons are the basic functional units of the nervous system. That is, they are the smallest pieces of the
system that show basic nervous system fu
Chapter 14: Sense Organs
1. Why are visceral sensations important to the survival of an animal?
Visceral sensations keep the CNS informed about the overall prevailing conditions inside and outside
the body. The result is the initiation of behaviors design
Chapter 15: The Endocrine System
1. How do endocrine glands differ from exocrine glands?
Endocrine glands secrete tiny amounts of hormones directly into the bloodstream and not
through ducts. This feature differentiates them from exocrine glands, which se
Chapter 16: The Urinary System
1. What are the 6 structures that make up the urinary system?
Two kidneys, two ureters, one urinary bladder, and one urethra
2. Nitrogenous waste materials from protein breakdown are eliminated from the body
primarily as _.
Chapter 17: The Reproductive System
1. How does the reproductive system differ from other body systems?
The rest of the body's systems work to ensure the survival of the individual animal they are part
of, whereas the reproductive system works to ensure t
Chapter 18: Pregnancy, Development, and Lactation
1. Why is the timing of copulation so important? How is the precise timing accomplished?
Timing is important because the spermatozoa must arrive at the oviducts before the ovum to have time
to undergo capa
Layers of the Heart
Heart in situ
branch of aorta
left AV valve