Radial Probability Functions
The Aufbau Principle = the Build-Up Principle
1) Multi-electron atoms have limitations
a) Any combination of quantum #s works for a 1-electron atom (e.g. H, He+)
b) Electrons will have to interact in multi-electron systems
Atomic Energy States
The ways in which the angular momenta associated with the orbital and spin motions in manyelectron-atoms can be combined together are many and varied. In spite of this seeming
complexity, the results are frequently readily determined
Basic Quantum Mechanics
1) The Electron
J. J. Thomson credited with the discovery in 1897
i. Previously, atoms were believed to be the smallest particles
ii. William Morgan (1785) passed current through a vacuum
Chapter 4 Symmetry and Group Theory
Symmetry is present in nature and in human culture.
It is a fundamental property of nature
Symmetry and Introduction to Group Theory
The term symmetry is derived from the Greek word symmetria
REPRESENTATIONS OF SYMMETRY POINT GROUPS
APPLICATIONS OF GROUP THEORY
Symmetry of atomic orbitals
When bonds are formed, atomic orbitals combine according to their
Symmetry properties and degeneracy of orbitals can be learned fr
All symmetry operations can all be represented mathematically as 3 3 square
To carry out the symmetry operation, you multiply the symmetry operation
matrix times the coordinates you want to transform.
The x, y, z coordinates are written in vecto
Optical Activity and Symmetry
Chiral molecules can exist as enantiomers, which will rotate
plane-polarized light in opposite directions (left or right handed.
Chiral molecules are dissymmetric, but not necessarily
asymmetric (point group C1).
Summary so far.Use of Symmetry in Chemistry
1. Understand what orbitals are used in bonding
2. Predict IR spectra or Interpret UV-Vis spectra
3. Access reaction pathways
4. Predict optical activity of a molecule
Symmetry Elements and Operations:
Dr. Vince Scialli
EXAM 5~ Study Guide ~ Renal & Urinary Systems
This guide is intended to provide you with direction into areas of importance. It is also intended to
complement your lecture attendance, reading and note taking . . . not
Wherever it is found, water always contains oxygen and hydrogen in the mass ratio of 8 to 1.
Taken by itself, this fact demonstrates what natural law?