Geobacter sulferrenducens: Metal-Reducing Role in Bioremediation and Bioenergy
Zymomonas mobilis: its ability to carry out a vigorous fermentation of sugars to ethanol
Corynebacterium diphtheria: a pathog
BIOL 4302/5302-001 (Microbial Genetics)
1. Which of the following is not correct regarding DNA and RNA synthesis?
A. The overall direction of chain growth is from the 5 end to the 3 end.
B. The template strand is antiparallel to the newly synthesized
genetic element that replicates independently of the host chromosome
Properties of Plasmids
-great majority are double stranded
-most are circular
-range in size 1kb-7Mb(aka mega plasmids)
-typically less that 5% the size of the chro
A. Explain what the methyl red test determines.
Methyl red test is used to determine whether bacteria can perform mixed-acid
fermentations when supplied with glucose (Ramakrishnan, & Sulochana, 2012). Methyl red test
shows positive when the cultu
Part 1: Effects of Salt Concentration on Bacterial Growth
This section continues the observations of growth patterns of the organism Staphylococcus epidermidis
and Saccharomyces cerevisiaeusing solutions containing 1%, 7%, and 15% NaCl.
1. Efficiency of an antibiotic or any other anti-microbial agents is generally
predicted through Antimicrobial sensitivity tests (ASTs) that measures the degree
of inhibition of in-vitro microbial growth. Mueller-Hinton agar test is an example
Running head: CLINICAL BIOLOGY
Name: Catherine Attipoe
A. Compare your observations from the four activities of the fresh wet mount, direct
staining using cr
A. Generate a fermentation profile for each of the organisms you tested.
Glucose fermentation shows the ability of a bacterium to ferment carbohydrate as well as its
ability to convert end products (pyruvic acid) into gaseous byproducts (Levinso
A. Define selectively toxic. A1. Explain why being selectively toxic is an important
feature of antimicrobial agents.
Selectively toxic means the therapeutic agent used can inhibits or kills microbial cells
but not the host's cells. The therapeut
A. Define the following three terms in relation to microbial growth: Isotonic Hypotonic
Isotonic solutions are those having equal concentration of solutes and water. Under
isotonic solution the microbes will be stable because diffusio
A. Describe the difference between an obligate and facultative aerobe.
Obligate aerobe refers to the organisms that cannot survive in environments without
any presence of oxygen. Facultative aerobes refer to the organisms that can survive in th
A. Compare enriched complex, and synthetic (defined) media.
Enriched media - These media contain elements necessary for the growth of as many
microbes as possible including the fastidious species of microbe. It contains animal tissue. It is
A. Describe the differences between gram-positive and gram-negative cell walls.
Gram positive cell wall consists of a thick wall and also wall of gram positive bacteria
is smooth. In this case the lactobacillus and staphylococcus are gram positiv
Nutrition, Metabolism, and
(see pages 107-174)
Defined as the sum of all
chemical processes taking place
within a cell
Two distinct classes of reactions
Why are we concerned with these aspects of cellular l
(see text pages 2531-277)
What are Viruses?
o Genetic elements that cannot replicate independently of a host cell.
o They are generally small
0.02 0.3 m
o They are metabolically inactive in the extracellular state
o They are host specific
A look at macromolecules (Text pages 51-65)
What is the typical chemical composition of a
cell? (Source of figures to right: Madigan et al.
Differential charge characteristics due to
excess of protons or electrons allows for
An Introduction to General Microbiology (Brock 13th edition, Chapter 1)
Some mind altering unimaginable quantities:
If all the 1 x 1031 viruses on earth were laid end-to-end, they would stretch for 100
million light years (a light year is 9.5 x 1016 m or