Conservatism arose in reaction to liberalism and
became a popular alternative for those who were
frightened by the violence, unleashed by the French
Early conservatism was allied to the restored
monarchial governments of Austr
Raising the level of consciousness of people having a
common language, soil, traditions, history, culture and
shared human experiences.
The ideas needed to promote political unity around an
identity of what or who constitutes the nation,
l Founded by Jeremy Bentham, this theory held the
pleasure-pain principle as its key idea.
l Supported the concept of the greatest happiness for
the greatest number.
l Liberals also advocated the Balance of Power theory
and free trade.
The new Czar of Russia, Nicholas I, had the first
opportunity to demonstrate his extreme conservatism in
foreign policy when a military insurrection broke out in
later 1830, in Warsaw.
The Russian garrison was driven out of Poland.
The Greek Revolt
The revolution which broke out in Greece in 1821, while
primarily a nationalist uprising rather than a liberal
revolution, was part of a larger problem known as The
Greece was part of the Ottoman Empire, whose vast
From 1810 to 1825, Czar Alexander I governed this
traditional authoritarian state - thought he was called
upon to lead Europe into a new age of benevolence
and good will.
Establishment of the Holy Alliance
After the Congress of Vienna, he becam
Austria & Germany
Throughout the first half of the 19th century, the Austrian
Empire and the German Confederation were dominated
by Prince Metternich.
The German Confederation
It was Napoleon who reduced over 300 German states
to 39, and the Congress
The Crimean War occurred during the 1850s.
l A war between Russia and France over protectorate
powers in the Balkan region.
England Chooses Reform Over Revolution
The climax of repression in England was the Six Acts of
Parliament in 1819.
Since being merged with Holland in 1815, the upper
classes of Belgium had never reconciled themselves to
rule by a country with a different language, religion, and
Inspired by the July Revolution, a revolt against D
Initially, the great powers followed the lead of the
Austrian statesman Prince Metternich in suppressing
any direct or indirect expression of liberal faith.
Most leaders attempted to reinstitute conservative
means of governmental