8. Design Basics
Basics of Designs
o Outdoor ice cream sales & saving lives!
o Correlation: Items are related to each other, not that one
is causing the other one.
Positive: As one increases, so does the other one
Negative: As one decreases, the other o
9. Random Designs
11. Cover Story and Lab Artifacts
Elements of a Study
o Setting of the experiment:
Come up with a cover story for your experiment
Can conceal your hypothesis or manipulations
in the study
Gives participants a framework for what they
are doing in the st
o What are ethics?
o A set of principles for behaving in a way that is morally
Three areas of concern:
o 1. Human participants are treated with respect that
maintains their dignity
o 2. Animal participants are treat
10. Non-Randomized Designs
o What is the difference between Randomized and NonRandomized designs?
o Non-randomized designs have problems with internal
validity because conditions may not be equal
Social Research and Attitudes
What does research get me?
o 1. Understand out world better (ex: poll results)
o 2. Combat pseudoscience/claims made to look like science
(ex: myths, brain percentage)
o 3. Understand statistics (ex: probabilistic reasoning a
Basic Terms of Research
Construct: Abstract concept that cannot be measured directly
E.g., love, power, aggression, intelligence
o Need to have a valid agreed-upon representative
Each construct will have a variable
Variable: Anything that can take on di
Reliability and Validity Issues
o Reliability: Can you get same/similar results with each use
(e.g., prejudice measure for reducing ethnic strife)
How replicable is your study? Can you get the
same results every time?
o Measurement Re
Theories and Hypotheses
o Overriding framework used to organize a body of
observations - Explains why the behavior took place.
THEORIES TELL US WHY AND HOW
Social Loafing: When people feel they cannot be
evaluated (internal or ex
Why do Research?
Demonstrate: research to demonstrate a theory
o 1. Theory/Technique (ex: TV violence and children)
Exposure to violent acts in TV results in
violent behaviors in children because they are
mimicking they behavior they are watching.
o 2. D