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lecture material (Dec 4)
First attack: something transcends logic and it is "on a level higher than" logic 1. [T]he ordinary logical process of reasoning is powerless to give final satisfaction to our deepest spiritual needs. (p. 59) 2.
lecture material (Nov 13)
Mill's Methods 1. method of agreement Example 1 (the method of agreement) factors present A, B, C, . A, C, D, . A, D, E, . A, E, F, . .
1st instance: 2nd instance: 3rd instance: 4th instance: .
Example 2 (the m
lecture material (Nov 6)
Topic 4: Induction
A Common Form of Induction All Fs we have observed are G. (Or a1, a2, . . , an are all Fs that are also G.) Therefore, all Fs are G. NOTE: inferred from specific cases to a general rule Example 1 All metal thing
lecture material (Oct 30)
Topic 2: Truth (con't)
A. truth-condition B. cognitive meaning C. verification principle D. noncognitive meaning a: Each cat is wearing a bell or not wearing a bell. b: Each cat is wearing a bell today. c: Each cat should wear a
lecture material (Oct 16)
Appendix on linguistic misuses
natural language is bound to be incomplete, ambiguous, vague, carrying emotion, etc. (taught)
2. shift/distortion of meaning (taught) 3. incomplete meaning 4. emotiona
lecture material (Oct 16) supplementary
Topic 3: Truth (continues)
II. The three key features of analytic/synthetic sentences: A. a priori vs a posteriori a. "analytic sentences are a priori" we do not need to rely on our five senses to determine the trut
lecture material (Oct 9)
Topic 2: Fallacies
A. linguistic fallacies (taught) B. fallacies of omission (taught) C. fallacies of intrusion 1. against the person (ad hominem argument) argument and speaker character assassination guilt by associat
lecture material (Sept 25)
Topic 2: Fallacies
A. linguistic fallacies (taught)
B. fallacies of omission 1. false dilemma just two solutions/options 2. appeal to ignorance true because it hasn't been proved false 3. straw man to weaken/distort
Three tasks: 1. It'd be extremely helpful if you could read the article and answer these two questions before you come to the class. Don't forget to bring along the article. 2. Q1: What are the reasons in the article supporting this conclusion: "climate c
With respect to the conclusion: "we'll [the U.S. government] create jobs [in the U.S.]" (in 11), construct a detailed set of arguments from the information provided in the article.
Exporting Our Way to Stability (The New York Times, Nov. 5, 2010)
[First: a recapitulation of what I've said in class: the optimal number of items in that detailed set of argument should be no more than 10 components that you find in the article together with the given conclusion. Remember that the more you write, the m
Exercise on analogical reasoning Decide whether the additional statement strengthens, weakens, or is irrelevant to the following analogical argument. We know that heart attacks exist among family members due to similar lifestyle and genes. It really worri
Logical Fallacies 1
LOGICAL FALLACIES HANDLIST: Arguments to Avoid when Writing
Fallacies are statements that might sound reasonable or true but are actually flawed or dishonest. When readers detect them, these logical fallacies backfire by making the aud
LANGUAGE, TRUTH AND LOGIC
THE traditional disputes of philosophers are, for the most part, as unwarranted as they are unfruitful. The surest way to end them is to establish beyond question
1 LANGUAGE, TRUTH, and LOGIC by A.J. Ayer Chapter 1: The Elimination of Metaphysics The traditional disputes of philosophers are, for the most part, as unwarranted as they are unfruitful. The surest way to end them is to establish beyond question what sho