L3 STRESS & ADAPTATION
Requires us to interact w. it
A person experiences stress when a demand exceeds a persons coping abilities, resulting in reactions
such as: disturbances of cognition, emotion, & behavior tht can adversely affect well-being
Suffix itis = inflammation
Inflammation is not always accompanied by infection. But infection always causes inflammation.
Inflammation is a purposeful response.
Causes: any injury to cells.
1. immune reaction
PAIN AND PAIN MANAGEMENT
Definitions: McCaffery pain is whatever the experiencing person says it is, existing whenever he says it
does. American Pain Society an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or
potential tissue damage
The Immune Response
Innate immunity = natural immunity or native immunity
1. Early response
2. Is what lets body distinguish self from nonself but cannot tell between pathogens
3. cellular and biochemical defenses
4. response is basically the same no matt
Fluid and Electrolytes
TBW = total body water makes up about 60% of weight.
One liter weighs 1 Kg. = 2.2 lbs.
Intracellular fluid is all the fluid in the cells = 2/3 TBW
Extracellular fluid is all the fluid outside the cells = 1/3 TBW
STRESS AND ADAPTATION
A person experiences stress when a demand exceeds a persons coping abilities, resulting in reactions such as
disturbances of cognition, emotion, and behavior that can adversely affect well-being
Allostasis = the complex actions neede
Kidney Stones - Calculi are made of crystals, protein, or other substances.
Gender - Prevalence Males 12%, Females 5%
Geographic location, seasonal factors, and occupation are indirect - have to do with climate and how much it
Peptic Ulcer Disease - ulcers that penetrate the mucosa or deeper structures of the upper GI tract where there is acid and pepsin
secretion. Can be seen from esophagus to jejunum. Most common = stomach and duodenum.
Gastric - Presence of HP. Usually h
Liver, Pancreas, and Biliary Disorders
1. Digested CHO (glucose) are stored in the liver as glycogen & released into the bloodstream as glucose when needed
2. The parenchymal cells of the liver change the amino acids derived from protein m
Define Varicose veins
A vein in which blood has pooled, veins are not straight
Distended, tortuous, and palpable veins
Caused by trauma or gradual venous distention
Ex: hemorrhoids; esophageal varoses
Varicose veins on legs for people that s
The Genetic Basis of Disease
Gregor Mendel works with pea plants- in 1866 publishes a paper in which he describes heredity.
Watson and Crick 1953 discover the double helix model of DNA.
Composition and Structure:
4 bases (nitrogenous)
TBI in the United States
An estimated 1.7 million people sustain a TBI annually.
52,000 die, 275,000 are hospitalized, and 1.365 million, nearly 80%, are treated and released from an emergency
TBI is a contribut
Cancer = from Greek word for crab = karkinoma
Neoplasm = ["new thing formed'] - AKA tumor - abnormal growth that serves no function and keeps growing
even when original stimulus is removed. May be benign or malignant.
Benign - not current or progre
Catecholamines, NE and
L1 GENETICS & the genetic basis of disease
Gregor Mendel: pea plants
1866 published paper describing heredity
Garden pea experiments
Watson & Crick: 1953 discover the double helix model of DNA
Composition & Structure
Adaptive and Innate Immunity Terms and Objectives
Active immunity (active acquired immunity)
Adaptive (acquired) immunity
Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC)
Human leukocyte ant
The Pathophysiology of Cancer
a. Colo-rectal cancer
b. Breast Cancer
c. Lung Cancer
Name the hallmarks of cancer
CELL AND TISSUE ALTERATIONS
Atrophy = cell size shrinks
i. Happens in childhood
i. Results when blood supply, nutrients, stimulation
ii. Disuse atrophy
Hypertrophy = cell size increa
Stressors Affecting Acid Base Balance
Purpose of ABG Measurement
l. To assess the adequacy of oxygenation - measured by pO 2 and SaO2
2. To assess the adequacy of ventilation - measured by pCO 2
3. To assess acid-base balance - measured by pH and HCO3Norm
The number of people diagnosed with asthma grew by 4.3 million from 2001 to 2009.
The number of people with asthma continues to grow. One in 12 people (about 25
million, or 8% of the population) had asthma in 2009, compared with 1 in 14 (about 20
Highest incidence - higher in mid teens because they do stupid shit.
Older people over 65 because osteoporosis and they get more fragile and more trouble with balance and