STUDY GUIDE FOR FINAL (100 questions)
The Earth: the Earths internal structure; Physical concepts such as energy (kinetic,heat),
density, convection, viscosity. Energy sources and energy transfers in the
Earth system what drives natural disasters?.
Volcanoes Introduction: Magma
Volcanic eruptions take place because of the geothermal energy within the earth that
needs to be release.
o Molten rocks (basaltic magma) is very fluid; becomes black when it cools.
Principles of Volcanism
Volcanoes: Other Events
Mt. Pelee, Martinique, May 10, 1902, Caribbean islands
o The only subduction zone in the North Atlantic. North American plate and
South American plate sandwiches the Caribbean plate. The Caribbean plate is a
left lateral transform
Volcanoes: Events: Mt. St. Helens
Subduction Events, strato-volcanoes:
o 1. Mt St. Helens
o 2. Mt. Pelee, Caribbean
o 3. Nevado Del Ruiz, Andes mountains in Columbia
o 4. Mt. Vesuvius, Bay of Naples, Italy
Mt. St. Helens, WA, 1980
o Located in the Cascadi
Volcanoes: Deadly Hazards
Hawaii is a hot spot, a product of a deep mantle plume that rises from the depths of the
earth. The hot spot is stationary. The oldest island is farther away from the hot spot
located at the big island.
In about 600,000 years the
Plate Tectonics: Introduction
The surface of the earth moves because there is an enormous amount of heat in its
interior and must be release.
o They are released at mid-oceanic ridges and hot spots.
Convection Heat transfer in a gas or liquid by the circ
Tsunami is a Japanese word that means Harbor waves. It is not just one wave, it is a
series of waves.
The Japanese armored their coastlines with sea walls.
Japanese Tsunami, 2011
o The most costly and most destruction natural disaster
Space Impacts Part 2 Events
Impact Craters on Earth
o There are about 150 impact craters
o Meteor Crater, AZ desert, 50,000 years ago
Iron Meteorite Diameter ~50m
Air burst ~23m above the earth surface Russia, February 2013
Stony Meteorite. Many little
SPACE IMPACTS PART 1 (Intro)
Airburst/Sonic boom asteroid that came into Earths atmosphere at Russia on
February 2013. More energy than an atomic bomb.
Humans To Get Dinosaured!. In 2029 a huge asteroid will pass Earth, but then come
back at 2036 to hit u
Plate Tectonics: Boundaries
o 1. Divergent Boundary
Mountain ridges underneath the water.
2 plates rift apart.
Eastern Rift of Africa Mt Kenya and Mt. Kilimanjaro are a result
of the asthenosphere being so high. At Ethiopia they have 6
Intro to Geology Part 2:
Formation of the Solar System and Earth
o The earth was form in a solar nebula (Latin for cloud and dust)
o Earth was created ~ 4.6 byo
A massive star exploded also known as a super nova.
Earth condenses out of a Nebula cloud of d
Mass Wasting: Triggers and Coastal Erosion
o 1. Rainstorms most common triggering event for mass wasting.
For instance if we cut and fill a slope, we steepen the slope. All we need
is for rain to saturate the soil, triggering a landslide
April 2010, Baja Quake (Easter quake) measured a magnitude 7.2. Epicenter located in
o Two people died in the Mexicali quake.
Ancient Tales of Earthquakes
o China giant ox under the Earth
o Russia mighty dog Kosei
Intro to Geology Part 3
The Rock Cycle
o Any rock, given enough time.
o Rocks are formed at mid oceanic ridges, then collides at plate boundaries and
heats up, then it melts and return into the earth to be recycled to re-emerge to
form rock again at mid
Mass Wasting Introduction
Landslides means a broad range of earth movements.
La Jolla exclusive and high-end, but a disaster waiting to happen.
Pacifica, CA nice ocean view, but the area collapsed taking 8 homes with it.
Palm Springs nice landscaping, but
Earthquake Scales/San Andreas
1. If the crust gets squeezed, the rocks respond to compression stresses and break
along _ faults.
a. Which boundary? Convergent boundary
b. What resulting landscapes?
2. What if the crust gets lengthened and pulled
Earthquake Events Part 1
1. Chile, 2010
o Next to a convergent boundary in the form of a subduction zone.
o The Nazca plate subducting underneath the South American Plate.
o Seismic moment magnitude of 8.8 and about 700 people died.
o The earthquake is ca
The Earths Mobility
When we talk about the earths mobility and energy sources that drive the circular motion in both
northern and southern we focus on two basic sources of energy - that reaching the Earth from the
Sun (Solar Energy) and that reaching the
Volcanoes: Edifices, Eruptions (53:49)
Volcanic Edifice means volcanic building or volcanic cone.
Rocks melt mostly in the lithosphere of the earth in magma chamber.
An edifice is a volcanic cone built by successive eruptions from a magma chamber