Sociology- Class Notes- Constructing methods in Observations
Construct Validity
Issue is: do you have a good operationalization of your construct (the
thing you are trying to measure)?
First it is necessary to define the construct: what is it you want to
Sociology- Class Notes- Observation and Sampling
Observation
Partners can do this separately, does not have to be at exactly the
same time or on the same subjects
But agree on the type of object you are observing or type of place you
are observing people
Sociology Methods- Class Notes- Introduction to Methods of Sociological
Inquiry
Sociology 357 Methods of Sociological Inquiry
Nonscientific Approaches to Knowledge
Unsupported assertions no evidence at all
Appeals to authority
Need to evaluate the authori
Sociology- Class Notes- Hypothesis
Hypothesis
A hypothesis is a type of proposition.
Some use proposition and hypothesis as synonyms.
I use hypothesis to mean the proposition being tested in a particular
research project. This is the most common usage.
So
Sociology- Class Notes- Experiments and Sample sizes
Sample size in our projects
Minimum is 10 cases per treatment, 20 cases total for 2 treatments
(30 cases total for 3 treatments)
This does not ASSURE a good division of subjects, but makes it
quite prob
Sociology Methods- Class Notes- Basic concepts
Basic Concepts
Units of Analysis
The objects we study
People
Families
Cities
Newspaper articles
Classes (in school)
Variables
Dimensions or aspects of units of analysis which vary. Variables
MUST vary.
Formal
Sociology Methods- Class Notes- Causation
Causation
It is generally difficult or impossible directly to observe causation
Criteria for inferring causation from observables:
Statistical association: two things vary together
Cause precedes effect in time
Ex
Sociology Methods- Class Notes- Testing Prediction and Logic Experiments
Testing Prediction of Zero Association
This is harder to falsify
Only an exactly zero association confirms
A large association disconfirms
A weak association is indeterminate.
Logic
Sociology- Study Guide- Midterm Review
Sociology 357
Study guide part I
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Distinguish empirical statements (or questions) from other kinds of statements. Especially
contrasted with
D
Sociology- Study Guide- Final Exam Review
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Definition of a probability sample: every element of the population has a known nonzero
probability of selection.
Recognize ob