Minerals: The Building Blocks of Rocks
Rock - An aggregate of one or more minerals.
Orderly internal structure (atoms arranged in a definite pattern).
Definite chemical composition that may vary within specifi
Chapter 2 Quiz lab
1. What mineral composition is most characteristic of felsic rocks?
a. olivine, pyroxene, and calcium-rich plagioclase
b. orthoclase, quartz, and biotite
c. calcium-rich plagioclase and hornblende with some olivine
d. particles of volca
What is Earth Science?
A name for all of the sciences that study and understand Earth.
Geology: study of the solid earth.
Oceanography: study of Earth's oceans.
Meteorology: study of Earth's atmosphere including weather and climate.
Earth Science 110
Everything you wanted to know about your Earth. (Probably
more than you wanted to know.)
Chapter 3 - Plate Tectonics
Why study and know plate tectonics?
Answers many geology questions?
Why are there patterns of earthquakes?
Why are there patterns of volcanoes?
Why are there patterns of mountain ranges?
Why are various resources have p
Chapter 7 Rocks and Minerals
Why study and know earth materials?
To study and learn about the earth, we must know about
Calcite for manufacturing cement
Gypsum for manufacturi
Chapter 8b Earth History
Earths age is between 4.53
and 4.56 billion years old. A
difficult to fathom length of
To put this in perspective:
Yard is the distance
from Kings nose to his
index finger. If all of earths
history is on that yard
By: Ryan Kaminski
Description of all the steps to the
Step 1. Plants remove carbon dioxide from the air.
Step 2.When the plants died, they were buried in the earth.
Step 3.After millions of years, their remains turned into coal and oil.
Products That Conserve Resources Lab Form
Your hypothesis should answer the following question: Which packaging conserves
resources the best?
Importance of Glaciers
Forms many landscape features.
Glaciers are the first indication of changing climate.
Affect sea level.
Sea level was 140 m lower 18,000 years ago.
Sea level would rise 40 m if all glaciers
Weather and climate
Weather is over a short period of time
Climate is over a long period of time
Generalized, composite of weather
Elements of weather and climate
Properties that are measured regularly
Most important el
Near earth objects have affected and might again make a significant dissruption of earth's
Cretaceous-Tertiary dinosaur extinction
60-75% of all species became extinct
All organisms larger than about 40 pounds
Dinosaurs, large marine
Plate Tectonics - A Unifying Theory in the Earth Sciences
Continental Drift - An Idea Before its Time
The movement or "drifting" of the continents relative to one another.
Alfred Wegener, a German meteorologist, first set forth the idea of continental dri
What is an Earthquake?
One of the most dramatic examples of crustal deformation.
The vibration of the earth produced by the rapid release of stored strain energy through fault slip
The energy radiates in the form of seismic waves in all directi
Volcanoes and Volcanic Eruptions
Volcano, crater (caldera), vent.
Earth tremors (earthquakes and "harmonic tremor") usually accompany the movement of magma
in subsurface conduits.
Built of successive basaltic lava flows generally from a sin
Earth history involves 4.5 billion years.
Geologists need a time scale of earth history in which events can be placed in their proper
Tells us the sequence of events.
A few simple rules (formulated by Steno):
The downslope movement of rock, regolith, and soil under the direct influence of gravity.
Does not require a transporting medium.
It is the process that takes place between weathering and erosion.
From slow imperceptible creep to fast moving
Earth as a system: the hydrologic cycle
The Hydrologic Cycle
There are 1.36 billion cubic kilometers of water on earth.
97.2% in the oceans.
2.15% in icecaps and glaciers.
0.65% in lakes, streams, groundwater, and the atmosphere.
380 thousand cubic kilome
Groundwater is a Resource
The amount of groundwater is vast but not unlimited.
About 0.6% of the world's water found underground.
50% of the world's drinking water
40% of the water used for irrigation
26% of industry's needs
Importance of Earth's Oceans
Potable water desalinization
Santa Barbara, CA
Shellfish and other invertebrates
Sodium chloride - table salt
Magnesium - aerospace industry
"Sea Salt" - expensive tab
Early history of astronomy
Used philosophical arguments to explain natural phenomena
Also used some observational data
Most ancient Greeks held a geocentric (Earth-centered) view of the universe
Earth was a motionless