Module 1 Specification
The biological importance of water as a solvent and as a medium for living
organisms, including change of state and specific heat capacity.
The elements which make up carbohydrates. Monosaccharides are the
Enzymes are biological catalysts. There are about 40,000 different enzymes in human cells,
each controlling a different chemical reaction. They increase the rate of reactions by a factor of
between 106 to 1012 times, allowing the chemical reaction
Comparison of prokaryotic and
The ultrastructure of eukaryotic cells and their organelles, to include cell wall, cell
membrane, nucleus, mitochondrion, chloroplast, rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum,
Golgi body and ribosome.
Maltose (or malt sugar) is glucose 1-4 glucose. It is formed on digestion of starch by
amylase, because this enzyme breaks starch down into two-glucose units. Brewing beer
starts with malt, which is a maltose solution made from germin
The development of internal gas exchange surfaces in larger organisms to maintain adequate
rates of exchange. Organisms with internal gas exchange surfaces need mechanisms for
conveying gases between the environment and these surfaces. The st
Lipids are a mixed group of hydrophobic compounds composed of the elements carbon,
hydrogen and oxygen.
Triglycerides are commonly called fats or oils. They are made of glycerol and fatty acids.
Glycerol is a small, 3-carbon
This is the compact globular structure formed by the folding up of a whole polypeptide chain.
Every protein has a unique tertiary structure, which is responsible for its properties and function.
For example the shape of the active site
Amino acids are joined together by peptide bonds. The reaction involves
the formation of a molecule of water in another condensation
When two amino acids join together a dipeptide is formed. Three amino
acids form a t
hydrophilic "head" (the negatively-charged phosphate group) and two nonpolar hydrophobic "tails" (the fatty acid chains). This mixture of properties is
fundamental to biology, for phospholipids are the main components of cell
Life on Earth evolved in the water, and all life still depends on water. At least 80% of the mass of
living organisms is water, and almost all the chemical reactions of life take place in aqueous
The other chemicals that mak