Criminology- Study Guide- Evaluating Theories on Four Criteria
Assumptions of human nature
Factors that cause crime
Implications for public policy
Hypothesis: When the certainty, severity, and celerity
Criminology- Study Guide- Early Legal Codes
Developed 2000 B.C. in area of modern Iraq, written on rock
Lex talionis (an eye for an eye):
punishment based on physical retaliation.
The Laws distinguish between three classes of persons: f
Criminology- Study Guide- Generations in Criminology
GENERATION 1: BOTH BLACK AND WHITE TREE MOTHS.
GENERATION 2: TREES TURN BLACK DUE TO SOOT
FROM IDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
GENERATION 3: ONLY BLACK MOTHS REMAIN. BLACK MO
Criminology- Study Guide- Feminist Approaches to Criminology
Knowledge assumed to be determined by experiences conditioned by
ones gender, race, class, ethnicity, etc.
Because criminology dominated by males, the field is flawed by
Criminology- Study Guide- English Common Law
Emergence of English Common Law
Justice System before the Normans (pre1066AD)
Hundreds (shire divided into 100 family units) Tithings (Hundreds devided
into 10 groups).
An early form of admini
Criminology- Study guide- Gender, Age, and Crime
Major finding in Criminology: Age is inversely related to criminality
(i.e. younger individuals more likely to be involved in crime).
Youths aged 13 to 17 comprise 6% of U.S. population, but account
Criminology- Study Guide- Hate and Terrorism
Violent acts directed directed towards a particular person or members
of a group because of race, ethnicity, religion, sexual preference, etc.
UCR data: about 8,000 hate crimes a year. (60% motivated by race).
Criminology- Study Guide- Human Nature and Crime
Forms of Social Control
Human Nature and Crime
theories assume that humans are rational
and selfish and/or prosocial and altruistic.
What is known about human nature?
Criminology- Study Guide- Labeling Theory
Focuses on formal and informal application of stigmatizing and
deviant labels, by society on some of its members.
Theory treats such labels as both dependent variable (effect) and
Criminology- Study Guide- Homicide
Legal Definitions of Homicide and Assault
the unlawful killing of a human being with malice aforethought
In most states prosecutors must prove that the accused intentionally and
with malice desired the death of
Criminology- Study Guide- Laws
Laws: Rules sanctioned by the State
Societal norms: Rules sanctioned by communities or citizens themselves
who do not hold formal positions in the legal system
Example of Laws
Homicide, Rape, Robbery
Criminology- Study Guide- Justice
State criminal justice institutions have emerged.
But two perspectives on how state laws are enacted and are
enforced: consensus and conflict.
Consensus and Functional Theories of Law
Formal laws which are created and enf