The Allegory of the Sun
Philosophers should rule because they are the only holders of true wisdom and knowledge.
Why does Plato think there must be a form of the good?
How does the image of the sun help us to understand the form of the good?
The good need
Republic Book II & III
if justice is other regarding, there is no self-justifying reason to be just.
Justice among thieves = collaboration and some kind of trust to pull off a heist
justice is the advantage of the stronger/legality
Glaucon and Adeimantus
Republic Book I
Fundamental problem in moral philosophy:
Why should I be moral?
Why justice and honesty create respectable character.
Eudaimonia: happiness (not pleasure, contentment, feeling good)
Flourishing, leading a good human life, fulfillment, an e
Republic Book IV-V
Why do we need forms?
So that the ruler can have something to aspire to.
Justification of Philosophical Rule:
Each part stick to duty to make the city temperate
Aristotles Posterior Analytics
At the beginning of Aristotles Posterior Analytics, hes beginning to sound a lot like
Plato with his Theory of Recollection. He says all teaching and learning comes from previous
Nicomachean Ethics Book I
Aristotle often starts his texts in a way that reminds me of Plato's dialogues. How
Posterior Analytics reminded me of the Theory of Recollection, Nicomachean Ethics reminded
me of the search for the hi
A Puzzle about Definitions
Socrates has told us he knows how to reject faulty definitions. But how does he
know when he has succeeded in finding the right definition? Meno raises an
objection to the entire definitional search in the form
That there is change of any sort
That entities come into or go out of existence
That what exists ever had a beginning or will have an end
That we can ever mention or even think of what does not exist
How does h
1. Why philosophers shouldn't fear death
2. Proofs for immortality of the soul
3. Forms as the objects of knowledge
Death is the final detachment of the soul from the body, and Socrates has spent his whole life
preparing for this.
Wisdom is the onl
Meno was taught by Gorgias (sophist)
Can virtue be taught?
78a : people desire bad things and are not miserable
aret: excellence (functions excellently): virtue: an object's justified notability, intrinsic and
A Socratic definition is an a
Republic Book VI & VII
This section of reading made the idea of Forms much more intelligible. At first I didn't
understand very well what Plato's purpose of Forms was at all. However, now I understand that
he attributes knowledg
Anaximander created a spherical model of the heavens with Earth at the center.
Introduces geometry and math, introducing laws and necessity to explain the world.
Various things in the universe have necessary relations to each oth
physics from phusis meaning nature
Dialectical method deals with popular opinion and improves it.
Aristotle combines the theories of Heraclitus and Parmenides to say that everything comes to be
from its contrary or intermediate state.
-The path up and the path down are the same.
Material monist- fire
Fire is the physical sign of the logos.
Heraclitus says that everything is in flux.
All objects are constantly adding and losing properties constantly, instantaneously.
One, indivisible, ungenerated, indestructible, unchanging, unmoving
A priori: knowable independent of experience
A posteriori: knowledge based on experience
Parmenides rejects a posteriori knowledge skepticism on knowledge based on
Thales (one of the 7 Sages of Greece) sage-wise man
-the cosmos began as a single stuff that changed to become the universe as we see it today
-Thales thinks everything is really water in one form or another or that e
Republic Book I
I thought the beginning was interesting, when the old men are talking about the trials of
old age. The complaints of old age are purely physical. Reading this, it's such a sharp contrast to
Socrates, who we know
Republic Book II & III
This reading was very long and at times it seemed very pointless. I did enjoy how it
started though. I like the classification of the three kinds of goods: goods that are justified in
themselves, in both t
Republic Book IV & V
In Book IV, Socrates continues his quest for the ideal city containing justice. They stress
the importance of proper education for the guardians of the city in order that they will be raised
justly and well-
Final argument for immortality of the soul (100a-107a)
When in us, the Form (F) will never admit its opposite (e.g., the
Tallness in us will never admit the Short).
So, a thing that always bring along the F will never